Adhesion, Arsenic album, Bryonia alba, Hepar sulphuris, Homoeopathy, Inflammation, Peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes, Rhus toxicodendron
Background: Homoeopathic medicines are used extensively for the treatment of many human diseases and are shown to affect immune cell functions. However, our understanding of the immunomodulatory effects of such medicines and associated mechanisms of action remains limited. Objectives: The present study aims to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of Arsenic album, Rhus toxicodendron, Hepar sulphuris and Bryonia alba on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes. Materials and Methods: In this work, neutrophils and monocytes were treated with different homoeopathic dilutions of 30C potency separately, followed by stimulation with the LPS, to examine the immunomodulatory effects of these medicines. Flow cytometry-based expression analysis of different surface markers was assessed, gene expression dynamics was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and protein secretion was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: A significantly decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α both at transcript levels as well as protein levels with reduced expression of the pathogen recognition receptors such as toll-like receptors (TLR)-2, and TLR-4 in LPS-stimulated neutrophils and monocytes were observed. Similarly, there was a reduction in reactive oxygen species production and expression of activation markers such as CD44, CD69 and CD62L in stimulated cells in the presence of the homoeopathic medicines. A differential level of expression of cell adhesion receptors (e.g., integrin β1, β3 and αv) which mediate migration of immune cells in the tissues was observed in stimulated cells. Conclusion: We found that homoeopathic medicines have a significant effect against LPS-induced inflammatory response in innate immune cells and provide empirical support for their beneficial effects.
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Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy
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How to cite this article
Dalpati N, Rai SK, Singh D, et al. Homoeopathic medicines modulate inflammatory functions and adhesion receptor expression in human blood cells: An in vitro study. Indian J Res Homoeopathy 2023;17(3):153-166. doi: 10.53945/2320-7094.1321