Indian Journal of Research in Homoeopathy


Cytokines, Homoeopathic medicines, Immunomodulation, Macrophage, Pre-clinical studies

Article Type

Review Article


Immunomodulation is a kind of regulatory modification in the immune system so as to bring the desired response. In this review the immunomodulatory effects of homoeopathic medicines – Rhus toxicodendron, Mercurius solubilis, Echinacea, Aconitum, Lachesis and Apis – and homoeopathic combination remedy Canova® are discussed. The review was conducted using PubMed and references from the relevant articles. The keywords comprising the names of above homoeopathic medicines along with terms 'immune function', 'cytokines', etc., were used for search. The review shows that homoeopathic medicines produced modulation of immune function at multiple levels such as modulation of expression of genes, stimulation of macrophage and polymorph nuclear cells, changes in expression of surface receptors and induction of cytokines. Extensive studies are required to explore the immunomodulatory effects of vast number of homoeopathic medicines. Studies based on human-derived immune cells specifically need more attention.

Digital Object Identifier



Wolters Kluwer India Pvt. Ltd.



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