Cytokines, Homoeopathy, Human whole blood culture, Lipopolysaccharide, RAW-264.7
Context: The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine release and oxidative stress are validated experimental parameters used to test anti-inflammatory activity. We investigated the effects of homoeopathic mother tinctures, 6 CH, 30 CH and 200 CH dilutions of Arnica montana, Thuja occidentalis and Bryonia alba against LPS (1 μg/ml)-induced cytokine release from RAW-264.7 cells and human whole-blood culture. Materials and Methods: For in vivo evaluations, mice were orally treated with 0.1 ml drug dilutions twice a day for 5 days followed by an intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 mg/kg LPS. After 24 h, the mice were sacrificed and serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide were determined. The extent of oxidative stress was determined in the liver homogenates as contents of reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and catalase. Results: The tested drug dilutions significantly reduced in vitro LPS-induced release of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-6 from the RAW-264.7 cells and human whole blood culture. Similar suppression of cytokines was evident in mice serum samples. These drugs also protected mice from the LPS-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue. Conclusions: Our findings substantiate the protective effects of Arnica, Thuja and Bryonia homoeopathic dilutions against LPS-induced cytokine elevations and oxidative stress. This study authenticates the claims of anti-inflammatory efficacy of these homoeopathic drugs.
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Wolters Kluwer India Pvt. Ltd.
How to cite this article
Mahajan U, Walke A, Kardile M, et al. Anti-inflammatory homoeopathic drug dilutions restrain lipopolysaccharide-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines: In vitro and in vivo evidence. Indian J Res Homoeopathy 2017;11(3):158-169. doi: 10.4103/ijrh.ijrh_94_16