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DEBATE
Scientific method of preparing homoeopathic nosodes
Rajesh Shah
July-September 2014, 8(3):166-174
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.141740  
Introduction: Nosodes are homoeopathic preparations sourced from biological materials such as diseased tissues, organisms, cultures (bacteria, fungi, and viruses), or parasites, or from decomposed products from humans or animals. More than forty-five major nosodes have been in use since 1830 but no clear guidelines regarding their preparation are available. Objective : To standardize the method of preparation of nosodes using modern technology and lay down clear guidelines for the same. Materials and Methods : Biological material identification such as culture of organism, separation of required pure fraction, quantification, standardization, dilutions, potentisation method, and safe use of nosodes were documented in a systematic way . Result: HIV, HCV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis nosodes were prepared using the modified method described in this article. Conclusion: The improved method of nosode preparation can pave way for laying clear guidelines for preparation of nosodes in homoeopathic pharmacopeias.
  9 24,909 1,629
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Significant enhancement of dielectric and conducting properties of electroactive polymer polyvinylidene fluoride films: An innovative use of Ferrum metallicum at different concentrations
BK Paul, S Kar, P Bandyopadhyay, R Basu, S Das, DS Bhar, Raj K Manchanda, Anil Khurana, D Nayak, Papiya Nandy
January-March 2016, 10(1):52-58
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.179154  
Background: There are experimental evidences of nanoparticle aspect of homoeopathic medicine. It has also been established that the size of these nanoparticles (NPs) decrease with increase in potency. Aim: We have used this aspect of homoeopathic medicines in some technical applications. Here, to improve the electrical properties of an electroactive polymer, poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexa-fluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP), we have incorporated in the polymer film, a very novel and unique probe Ferrum metallicum (FeM), a homoeopathic medicine, the size of which can be changed by dilution, followed by controlled agitation. Settings and Design: The composite film was synthesized by solution-casting technique. Using standard procedures, the characterization studies by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed to check the incorporation of the NPs in the film. Material and Method: Each sample was freshly prepared 2 times by doping FeM in PVDF-HFP matrix using solution-casting technique, and the experiment was repeated with each sample for 5 times. Statistical Analysis: This being a continuous data recording, error bars cannot be shown. We have presented the graphs which have been repeated maximum number of times. Result and Conclusion: Our result shows that the electrical properties such as dielectric constant, tangent loss, and electrical conductivity of these polymer films get significantly modified due to incorporation of this homoeopathic nanomedicine and the effect increases with the increase in concentration of the probe up to a critical value. These FeM-incorporated PVDF-HFP films will have potential applications as high-energy storage devices such as multilayered high-charge storage device.
  8 2,934 430
REVIEW ARTICLE
A review of Basic Research on Homoeopathy from a physicist's point of view
Papiya Nandy
July-September 2015, 9(3):141-151
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.166372  
Homoeopathic medicine has been one of the world's most widely practiced alternative therapies. However, that the potency of a homoeopathic medicine increases with dilution followed by succussion (together termed as potentization) has thrown challenges to the scientific community at large. A recent hypothesis, advanced by us and others, is that due to the process of potentization, the size of the constituent particles decreases and eventually reaches nanodimension. This decrease in size with increase in potency has been verified by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering studies. The increase in potency is manifested in its increased effect on membrane fluidity. The change in potency also leaves its signature on Ultraviolet-Visible spectra, Fourier transform infrared radiation spectra and Raman spectra. We have taken one step further to carry this nano-dimensional property of homoeopathic medicine and put it into several technical applications. And in so doing, we have connected the important, old, un-quantifiable effects with the latest quantifiable technology and opened up an era of applications with more possibilities.
  7 10,313 1,225
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Homoeopathic management in depressive episodes: A prospective, unicentric, non-comparative, open-label observational study
Praveen Oberai, Indira Balachandran, KR Janardhanan Nair, Anita Sharma, VP Singh, Vikram Singh, Chaturbhuja Nayak
July-September 2013, 7(3):116-125
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.119117  
Objective: To evaluate the role of homoeopathic medicines in the management of depressive episodes. Material and Methods: A prospective, non-comparative, open-label observational study was carried out from October 2005 to September 2010, by the Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH) (India), at - the Central Research Institute CRI (H), Kottayam. Patients who were 20-60 years of age, suffering from mood disorders were screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria. Homoeopathic medicines were prescribed in 30, 200 and 1M potencies, after repertorising the symptoms and signs and final consultation with the Materia Medica. The internationally accepted scales - Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) - were used to assess the symptoms at each visit and measure the outcome. The follow up of 12 months included six months of observation period. Analysis was done as per the intention-to-treat (ITT) principle using SPSS version 20. Results: Eighty-three patients (35 males and 48 females), who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Out of these, 67 patients completed the follow-up, 16 patients did not attend the Outpatient Department (OPD) for varying periods. The ITT principle was applied for the analysis considering their last observations. A statistically significant (P = 0.0001, P < 0.05) difference in the mean scores of HDRS, using the paired t-test, was observed. The mean scores at baseline and at end were 17.98 ± 4.9 and 5.8 ± 5.9, respectively. Statistically significant differences were also observed in the BDI and CGI scales. The most frequently used medicines were: Natrum muriaticum (n = 18), Arsenicum album (n = 12), Pulsatilla nigricans (n = 11), Lycopodium clavatum (n = 7) and Phosphorus (n = 6). Conclusion: A course of six months of homoeopathic treatment is associated with significant benefits in patients suffering from depressive episodes, as measured by HDRS. Further controlled studies are needed to assess the efficacy .
  6 7,314 975
Analysis of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some homoeopathic mother tinctures
Saeed Ahmad, Tayyeba Rehman, Waheed Mumtaz Abbasi, Muhammad Mohsin Zaman
January-March 2017, 11(1):21-25
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.200843  
Background: Antioxidant compounds are widely used in health protection. Homoeopathic mother tinctures are commonly prescribed for prevention and cure of many illnesses. Objective: The present study focused to determine the antioxidant potential of six commonly prescribed mother tinctures. i.e. Syzygium jambolanum, Damiana, Cinchona officinalis, Chelidonium majus, Convallaria majalis, Coca. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity was estimated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition assay. A volume of 0.1 mM solution of DPPH was used while mother tinctures (5, 2.5, and 1.25 μl volumes) were used for estimating antioxidant activity. Quercetin was taken as a standard control in antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was measured by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent assay. Total phenolic content of mother tinctures was measured in comparison to gallic acid. Results: Results of the study showed the significant antioxidant activity and high total phenolic content of all tested mother tinctures in the following order: Syzygium jambolanum, Damiana, Cinchona officinalis, Chelidonium majus, Convallaria majalis, Coca. Conclusion: Antioxidant potential of mother tinctures is related to total phenolic content present in them, and their role in prevention and cure of diseases may link through their antioxidant activity. Among six selected mother tinctures, S. jambolanum has highest antioxidant potential.
  6 5,333 680
CLINICAL PAPERS
Usefulness of classical homoeopathy for the prevention of urinary tract infections in patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction: A case series
Jürgen Pannek, Susanne Pannek-Rademacher, Martine Cachin Jus, Mohinder Singh Jus
January-March 2014, 8(1):31-36
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.129675  
Context: In patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), recurrent Urinary Tract Infections (UTI), is a frequently encountered clinical problem. Often, conventional preventive measures are not successful. Aims: To treat the patients of SCI suffering from recurrent UTI with classical homoeopathy as add-on to standard urologic care. Materials and Methods: After exclusion of morphological abnormalities and initiation of a standard regime for prophylaxis, all patients with a neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to SCI, with more than three symptomatic UTI/year, were offered additional homoeopathic care. Symptoms were fever, incontinence, increased spasticity, decreased bladder capacity or pain/decreased general health combined with significant bacteriuria. Descriptive statistics was used for analysis. Results: Eight patients were followed up for a median period of 15 months. Five patients remained free of UTI, whereas UTI frequency was reduced in three patients. Conclusion: Our initial experience with homoeopathic prevention of UTI as add on to standard urologic prophylactic measures is encouraging. For an evidence-based evaluation of this concept, prospective studies are required. Keys for the positive outcome of this case series are co-operation of well-qualified partners, mutual respect and the motivation to co-operate closely.
  5 12,816 923
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Prognostic factor research in Homoeopathy
Lex Rutten
January-March 2016, 10(1):59-65
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.179143  
Validation of homoeopathic medicines is about validating effectiveness in individual cases. Homoeopathic practitioners base their expectation that a medicine will work on the experience that specific symptoms of the patient indicate specific medicines. The prevalence of such symptoms is higher in a population responding well to a specific medicine than in the remainder of the population. This principle has a solid mathematical foundation in Bayes' theorem, identifies homoeopathic symptoms as prognostic factors, and offers an interesting perspective of individualized research. This kind of research depends on recording symptoms and results of treatment. An important challenge in this research is establishing causality between medicine and improved health. Prognostic factor research could become one of the main pillars of Homoeopathy's scientific identity.
  5 3,269 524
Effect of individualized homoeopathic treatment in influenza like illness: A multicenter, single blind, randomized, placebo controlled study
PS Chakraborty, CD Lamba, D Nayak, MD John, DB Sarkar, Amitava Poddar, JS Arya, K Raju, Kumar Vivekanand, H Binod Kumar Singh, H Baig, AK Prusty, Vikram Singh, C Nayak
January-March 2013, 7(1):22-30
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.114268  
Background: In the past decade the upsurge of influenza throughout the globe was significant and in recent years this has resurfaced showing failures of all the preventive and therapeutic measures against it. Thus, this study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of homoeopathic medicines in the treatment of Influenza like illness (primary objective) and to compare the complication rate among patients receiving homoeopathic medication as compared to the patients receiving placebo and also to compare the efficacy of LM potency vis-ΰ-vis Centesimal potency (secondary objective). Material and Methods: This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, triple arm placebo controlled trial conducted at nine Institutes and Units of Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH) from June 2009 to December 2010. The patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were randomized to LM, Centesimal and Placebo groups. Homoeopathic interventions were given as per the principles of homoeopathy. Symptoms of Influenza like illness (ILI) were assessed as per validated scales. Data analysis was done using statistical package of SPSS 20.0 version. Each symptom was compared for 10 days among the allocated groups by using Kruskal wallis test and bonferroni correction for the multiple comparisons. Results: Out of 739 screened cases, 447 cases were eligible for enrolment comprising of LM (n=152), (n=147) and placebo (n=148) cases. There was a significant difference in temperature from 2 nd day onwards in LM and Centesimal groups. The significant improvement was observed in headache and myalgia on 1 st day in both the treatment groups. Likewise, significant improvement was noted in malaise on 2 nd day in both the groups; sore throat on 1 st day in LM and 2 nd day in Centesimal; fatigue on 2 nd day in LM and on 3 rd day in Centesimal group; nasal complaints on 2 nd day in LM and 1 st day in Centesimal group; chill on 3 rd day in LM group and 1 st day in Centesimal group and in sweat on 1 st day in the treatment groups. Cough improved significantly from 3 rd day in both the groups. Conclusion: The study revealed the significant effect of individualized homoeopathic treatment in the patients suffering from ILI with no significant difference between LM and Centesimal groups. The complication/sequel rate was also significantly less in the intervention groups.
  5 7,816 1,049
CASE REPORT
Gangrene: Five case studies of gangrene, preventing amputation through Homoeopathic therapy
Seema Mahesh, Mahesh Mallappa, George Vithoulkas
April-June 2015, 9(2):114-122
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.159544  
Gangrene and its associated amputations are clinically challenging, but Homoeopathy offers therapy options. In this case series, 5 cases are presented, in which the homoeopathic treatment prevented amputation of a body part. Homoeopathy stimulates the body's ability to heal through its immune mechanisms; consequently, it achieves wound healing and establishes circulation to the gangrenous part. Instead of focusing on the local phenomena of gangrene pathology, treatment focuses on the general indications of the immune system, stressing the important role of the immune system as a whole. The aim was to show, through case reports, that homoeopathic therapy can treat gangrene without amputing the gangrenous part, and hence has a strong substitution for consideration in treating gangrene.
  4 68,010 2,761
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparative analysis of antibacterial activity of povidone iodine and homoeopathic mother tinctures as antiseptics
Muhammad Mohsin Zaman, Muhammad Aslam Shaad, Saeed Ahmad, Waheed Mumtaz Abbasi, Tayyeba Rehman
January-March 2016, 10(1):36-41
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.179151  
Objectives: Antiseptics are used extensively in hospitals and other health care centers (clinics) to control the growth of microbes on living tissues. They are essential parts of infection control practices, especially in wound treatment and aid in the prevention of nosocomial infections. This study was done to evaluate and compare the antibacterial effectiveness of povidone iodine and eight commonly used homoeopathic mother tinctures. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Faculty of Pharmacy and alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur. All the selected Homeopathic mother tinctures were purchased by Masood Homeopathic Pharmaceuticals, Pakistan. Prepared PYODINEâ (povidone iodine) solution 10% w/v, batch no. 084F4 used as positive control while 70% ethanol was used as negative control in each test. These tinctures were tested against three clinically important human skin-pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by disc diffusion method with povidone iodine as positive standard. Results: Seven out of eight mother tinctures showed more or less antibacterial activity; some of them have high activity than povidone iodine. Rhus glabra had maximum activity (zone of inhibition 32 mm) against Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa than povidone iodine and among all the tested mother tinctures. Conclusion: This study confirms the antibacterial activity and more effectiveness of Thuja occidentalis and Rhus glabra mother tinctures than povidone iodine. The other tested mother tinctures also have antibacterial activity against tested bacteria, except Echinacea.
  4 5,970 903
Effectiveness of homoeopathic therapeutics in the management of childhood autism disorder
Praful M Barvalia, Piyush M Oza, Amit H Daftary, Vijaya S Patil, Vinita S Agarwal, Ashish R Mehta
July-September 2014, 8(3):147-159
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.141738  
Background and Objectives: Childhood autism is severe and a serious disorder. A study was conducted by Spandan holistic institute of applied Homoeopathy, Mumbai, with the objective of demonstrating the usefulness of homeopathic management in autism. Materials and Methods: Sixty autistic children of both sexes, ≤12 years were selected for this study. It was nonrandomized, self-controlled, pre and post-intervention study, wherein the initial 6 months of observation period was used as the control period and the same patients were thereafter treated for 1 year and compared with post-intervention findings. Results: The study demonstrated significant improvement of autistic features with mean change in ATEC score (ATEC 1 -pre-treatment with ATEC 5 -post-treatment) was 15.12 and ATEC mean percent change was 19.03. Statistically significant changes in ATEC scores were observed in all the quarters analyzed through repeated measures ANOVA, with F-value 135.952, P = 0.0001. An impact was observed on all core autistic features, which included communication, 12.61%, socialization, 17%, sensory awareness, 18.82%, and health and behavior, 29% (P = 0.0001). Significant improvement was observed in behavior by Autistic Hyperactivity Scale, AHS 1 36 to AHS 5 14.30 with F-value 210.599 (P = 0.0001). Outcome assessment was carried out using MANOVA, which showed statistically significant changes in post-treatment scores, P < 0.005. Total 88.34% cases showed improvement, 8.33% showed status quo, and 3.33% cases worsened. Nine out of 60 cases showed a reversal of CARS putting them into non-autistic zone, P = 0.0001. A sharp decrease (34%) in ATEC scores, in the first quarter implied positive effect of homoeopathic medicines, prescribed, as per the homoeopathic principles. Conclusion: The study has demonstrated usefulness of homoeopathic treatment in management of neuropsychological dysfunction in childhood autism disorder, which is reflected in significant reduction of hyperactivity, behavioral dysfunction, sensory impairment as well as communication difficulty. This was demonstrated well in psychosocial adaptation of autistic children.
  4 56,573 8,225
Clinical trial for evaluation of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus nosode in the treatment for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected individuals
Rajesh Shah
January-March 2015, 9(1):25-33
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.154345  
Introduction: Identifying the need for strengthening of the immune system, the investigator has developed new Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) nosode and evaluated its effect on HIV positive individuals through a clinical trial. Methods: Standardized and the scientific method of HIV nosode preparation has been described and documented. Thirty-seven HIV-infected persons were registered for the trial, and ten participants were dropped out from the study, so the effect of HIV nosode 30C and 50C, was concluded on 27 participants under the trial. Results: Out of 27 participants, 7 (25.93%) showed a sustained reduction in the viral load from 12 to 24 weeks. Similarly 9 participants (33.33%) showed an increase in the CD4+ count by 20% altogether in 12 th and 24 th week. Significant weight gain was observed at week 12 (P = 0.0206). 63% and 55% showed an overall increase in either appetite or weight. The viral load increased from baseline to 24 week through 12 week in which the increase was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). 52% (14 of 27) participants have shown either stability or improvement in CD4% at the end of 24 weeks, of which 37% participants have shown improvement (1.54-48.35%) in CD4+ count and 15% had stable CD4+ percentage count until week 24 week. 16 out of 27 participants had a decrease (1.8-46.43%) in CD8 count. None of the adverse events led to discontinuation of study. Conclusion: The study results revealed improvement in immunological parameters, treatment satisfaction, reported by an increase in weight, relief in symptoms, and an improvement in health status, which opens up possibilities for future studies.
  4 9,070 986
Homoeopathic Genus Epidemicus 'Bryonia alba' as a prophylactic during an outbreak of Chikungunya in India: A cluster -randomised, double -blind, placebo- controlled trial
KR Janardanan Nair, S Gopinadhan, TN Sreedhara Kurup, Bonthu Sundara Jaya Raja Kumar, Abha Aggarwal, Roja Varanasi, Debadatta Nayak, Maya Padmanabhan, Praveen Oberai, Hari Singh, Vijay Pratap Singh, Chaturbhuja Nayak
July-September 2014, 8(3):160-165
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.141739  
Objective: The objective was to assess the usefulness of homoeopathic genus epidemicus (Bryonia alba 30C) for the prevention of chikungunya during its epidemic outbreak in the state of Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: A cluster- randomised, double- blind, placebo -controlled trial was conducted in Kerala for prevention of chikungunya during the epidemic outbreak in August-September 2007 in three panchayats of two districts. Bryonia alba 30C/placebo was randomly administered to 167 clusters (Bryonia alba 30C = 84 clusters; placebo = 83 clusters) out of which data of 158 clusters was analyzed (Bryonia alba 30C = 82 clusters; placebo = 76 clusters) . Healthy participants (absence of fever and arthralgia) were eligible for the study (Bryonia alba 30 C n = 19750; placebo n = 18479). Weekly follow-up was done for 35 days. Infection rate in the study groups was analysed and compared by use of cluster analysis. Results: The findings showed that 2525 out of 19750 persons of Bryonia alba 30 C group suffered from chikungunya, compared to 2919 out of 18479 in placebo group. Cluster analysis showed significant difference between the two groups [rate ratio = 0.76 (95% CI 0.14 - 5.57), P value = 0.03]. The result reflects a 19.76% relative risk reduction by Bryonia alba 30C as compared to placebo. Conclusion: Bryonia alba 30C as genus epidemicus was better than placebo in decreasing the incidence of chikungunya in Kerala. The efficacy of genus epidemicus needs to be replicated in different epidemic settings.
  3 16,754 1,149
Leaching of plastic polymers by plastic vials used for storing homoeopathic medicines: A preliminary study
Neeraj Gupta, RK Saxena, B Sharma, S Sharma, AK Agrawal, M Jassal, Raj K Manchanda
April-June 2014, 8(2):95-99
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.135642  
Background: In Homoeopathy, plastic containers/vials are used for the storing/dispensing of ethanol-based medicines instead of glass. Various studies have suggested that plastic components that leach out in stored substances tend to cause contamination and may produce adverse effects in living systems. The present study was aimed to find out chemical composition and leaching behaviour of commonly used plastic vials (PVs) if any during the storage of ethanol-based homoeopathic medicines in optimal environment. Material and Methods: The experiments were conducted on two sample sets of PVs. Chemical properties of PV were assessed by Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy. PV were cut separately [sample-1 (S-1) and sample-2 (S-2)] and immersed in Homoeopathic Grade Ethanol (HGE) in conical flask and stored for 7 days at ambient temperature (25° ± 5C) with constant rotary shaking. After 7 days, S-1 and S-2 of PV in Homoeopathic Grade Ethanol (HGE) were decanted and filtered. Aliquots (A1 and A2) were analysed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H 1 NMR). The spectral graph obtained by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy for PV compositions and spectral graph obtained by H 1 NMR spectroscopy for PV ethanol aliquots were examined for PVs material and PV leaching effect in HGE. Results: FTIR-ATR spectra showed that PV are made up of two types of polyolefin's compounds i.e. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE). Aliquots of PV in HGE showed the presence benzophenone and its methyl derivative, heat and light stabiliser (2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine and amino derivative), antioxidant (4, 4'- thiobis and 2-tertbutyl-5-methylphenol) and plasticizer bis 2-Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) or Dioctyl phthalate (DOP). Results of study suggest that PVs leach out plastic polymers in HGE. Conclusion: This preliminary experiment suggests that it is not safe to use LDPE/LLDPE plastic for storing/dispensing ethanol based homoeopathic medicines. Further study with other grades of plastic is desirable.
  3 5,362 659
Evaluation of homoeopathic medicines as add-on to institutional management protocol in Acute Encephalitis Syndrome: An exploratory observational comparative study
Raj K Manchanda, Praveen Oberai, Varanasi Roja, Supriya Singh, Neha Singh, Tariq Khan, Ramesh Prasad, JR Singh
January-March 2015, 9(1):34-41
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.154347  
Background: Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) treated according to Institutional Management Protocol (IMP) has considerable mortality and morbidity. The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of homoeopathic treatment (H) as an add-on to IMP (IMP + H) for children affected with AES. Materials and Methods: This was an exploratory observational study carried out in the IPD setting (epidemic ward) of Baba Rhaghav Das Medical College and Nehru Hospital, Uttar Pradesh (July to November 2012) using convenience sampling. Children whose guardians gave consent were treated with IMP + H and rest remained on IMP only. Glasgow outcome scale was used at discharge for the final outcome. Results: 151 children (121 in IMP + H and 30 in only IMP) diagnosed with AES (aged 6 months to 18 years) were enrolled. The results showed 12 (9.9%) death out of 121 children administered IMP + H whereas it was 13 (43%) out of 30 children on IMP alone. Proportional odds analysis with covariate adjustment showed added benefit of Homoeopathy in children with AES as compared to IMP alone (adjusted odds ratio, 0.17, 95% confidence interval 0·06-0.45, P = 0·0001). The most useful medicines are Belladonna, Stramonium, Arsenicum album, Helleborus, Bryonia alba, Sulphur, and Cuprum metallicum. Conclusion: This exploratory observational study suggests reduction of mortality and morbidity with add-on homoeopathic medicine. Further randomized controlled trial study with comparable groups is desirable. If findings are confirmed by subsequent research, add-on Homoeopathy might have relevant implication for its management.
  3 5,850 657
Standardization of the potentizing machine and quantification of impact of potentization
Rajesh Shah
April-June 2016, 10(2):126-132
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.183879  
Introduction: Lack of accuracy and uniformity of impact have been the limitations of the ancient and current methods of potentization. Non-standardized electromechanical potentizers are in use across industry. It is very important that within each manufacturing process, the number of succussions should remain constant as well as the impact given (force exerted) is quantified. The author proposes to give importance to the force parameters in potentization and quantify the impact of potentization. Materials and Methods: The author develops electromechanical potentizer with certain specifications such as arm length, weight, and angle at which the arm drops at the base. The machine was operated with specific instructions given in the machine operation manual. The force parameters were calculated and standardized. Results: Torque is measured to quantify the impact of the force applied in potentization. The magnitude of torque is to be calculated by the force applied, length of the lever arm connecting the axis to the point of force application, and angle between the force vector and the lever arm. In this case, torque was calculated to be = 40.43 Nm. Since ten strokes are given, torque applied at every potency is calculated as 40.43. Conclusion: Necessity for the documentation of force parameters used in the process of potentization has been identified, and a tool is developed to demonstrate it.
  3 6,768 641
What is a homoeopathic symptom, in daily practice and research?
Lex Rutten, KC Muraleedharan, Vaishali H Shinde, Raj K Manchanda
January-March 2017, 11(1):12-20
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.200851  
Background: For two centuries, homoeopathic practitioners are using personal characteristics, symptoms, and diagnoses/conditions to compare the “patient picture” with the “medicine picture.” All data are considered within the context of the totality, using a so-called heuristic strategy. In prognostic factor research analyzing homoeopathic symptoms, we cannot use this context. Question: What is the essence of a homoeopathic symptom and how do we make assessment of homoeopathic symptoms applicable in daily practice? Methods: A questionnaire with seventy polar symptoms represented in Likert scales was tested in an outpatient clinic in 300 patients. Prevalence of symptoms and correlations between symptoms and between symptoms and conditions were analyzed. Outcome: The prevalence of symptoms varied widely; sometimes, prevalence was too high to give meaningful information. Theoretical considerations about heuristics can explain this variation. There is a considerable correlation between symptoms and between some symptoms and some conditions. Conclusion: The main characteristic of a homoeopathic symptom is its peculiarity, resulting in low prevalence. We can achieve this in research by using more cutoff values in our questionnaire and by guiding the filling in of the questionnaires by well-trained doctors. Correlations between symptoms and between symptoms and conditions should be monitored. Standardization of prognostic factor research is necessary to be able to generalize results.
  3 3,728 751
Phytochemical analysis and evaluation of antioxidant potential of ethanol extract of Allium cepa and ultra-high homoeopathic dilutions available in the market: A comparative study
Ekta Kundra Arora, Vibha Sharma, Anil Khurana, Ananya Manchanda, Dilsheen Kaur Sahani, Sijo Abraham, Deepa Kundu, Himani Gupta, Lunthanglien Babui Chiru, Nakul Sharma, Nitika Garg, Stephy Jomy
April-June 2017, 11(2):88-96
DOI:10.4103/ijrh.ijrh_13_17  
Introduction: As per statistics available with the WHO, 80% of the earth's population rely on traditional medicine for their primary health-care needs and most of this therapy involves the use of plant extracts and their active components. Objectives: To confirm the presence of alkaloids, fats, steroids, tannins, flavonoids, sugars, amino acids and saponins in Allium cepa extract. Method: A qualitative phytochemical analysis has been performed to confirm the presence of these components in Allium cepa extract and its homoeopathic formulations (mother tincture [MT], Allium cepa 30C and Allium cepa 200C). The total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant potential of the prepared extract and the various homoeopathic formulations have also been studied. Results: Presence of various phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, steroids, carbohydrates and amino acids have been confirmed in the prepared extract as well as the MT. According to calculations using Avogadro's limit, preparations above 12C dilution should have no source material present. It is interesting to note that even though the formulations Allium cepa 30C and 200C are considered ultra-high dilutions, they gave a positive result for many phytochemicals. The total phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant potential of the prepared extract and various homoeopathic formulations have also been studied. Conclusion: The positive qualitative and quantitative results also reinforce the growing belief that Homoeopathy is not just a placebo effect but a 'Smart medicine' which may be working on the nanoscale. More research is required to understand various aspects.
  3 5,215 1,012
REVIEW ARTICLE
An overview of research at University of Kalyani in exploring some basic issues of Homoeopathy
Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh
July-September 2017, 11(3):147-157
DOI:10.4103/ijrh.ijrh_25_17  
Homoeopathy has been confronted with certain major issues such as (i) how is medicinal property of homoeopathic drug transferred to and retained by the vehicle; (ii) how can it act in biological system in the absence of any original drug substance in ultra high diluted remedies? and (iii) plausible mechanism and pathways of biological action including mysteries of ‘like cured by likes’. We demonstrated through controlled studies the ability of ultra-highly diluted homoeopathic drugs in rendering protection/repair of cytogenetic damages inflicted by whole-body X-irradiation in mammalian model mice in vivo. We examined cytogenetic damages in arsenic, cadmium, mercury and stannum intoxicated mice and their remediation by homoeopathic drugs derived from agitated ultra-high dilutions of their respective salt, deploying many scientific protocols. We made a human trial on efficacy of Arsenicum album against groundwater arsenic-contaminated victims. We tested efficacy of some homoeopathic remedies in cancer of mice and thalassemia in human. We produced nano-capsules of homoeopathic mother tinctures and their bioactive components and induced nano-precipitation of silver from silver nitrate by homoeopathic mother tinctures and characterised them for their physicochemical properties and biological action. We studied tissue distribution of nanoparticles, precise mechanism and pathways of their action that involved certain signal proteins and their pathways, both in vivo and in vitro. This approach made a significant contribution towards elucidating the role of drug nanoparticles in inducing ‘memory of water’ and mechanism and pathways of action of homoeopathic remedies through epigenetic modifications that supported ‘gene regulatory hypothesis’.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Individualized homoeopathy versus placebo in essential hypertension: A double-blind randomized controlled trial
Subhranil Saha, Munmun Koley, Seikh Intaj Hossain, Malay Mundle, Shubhamoy Ghosh, Goutam Nag, Achintya Kumar Datta, Prasanta Rath
April-June 2013, 7(2):62-71
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.116629  
Background: Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disorder posing a major public health challenge to the population. Homoeopathy, although widely used in hypertension, is assumed to have nothing but placebo effects and its specific clinical effects are frequently ascribed as implausible. Aims: To evaluate whether individualized homoeopathy can produce any significant effect different from placebo in essential hypertension by comparing the lowering of blood pressure between groups. Settings and Design: A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm clinical trial was conducted at the Outpatient Clinic of the Mahesh Bhattacharyya Homoeopathy Medical College and Hospital, West Bengal. Material and Methods: Out of 233 hypertensives assessed for eligibility, 150 were enrolled and randomized (verum/homoeopathy 70, control/placebo 80). A total of 18 dropped out and 132 were regular (verum 64, control 68). The outcome measures were assessed after three months and six months. Statistical Analysis: The intention-to-treat population was subjected to statistical analysis. Group differences were tested using the χ2 test and independent t test. Repeated measure (ANOVA) was performed to compare the data of two groups obtained longitudinally at baseline, three months and six months. Results: The baseline data were not significantly different between the groups. After six months, mean Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) reduction was 26.6 mm Hg (95% CI 21.5, 31.7) in the homoeopathy group and SBP increased by 3.6 mm Hg (95% CI -8.7, 1.5) in the placebo group. Similarly, the mean Diastolic Blood Pressure (SBP) in the homoeopathy group reduced by 11.8 mm Hg (95% CI 9.2, 14.4) and increased by 1.6 mm Hg (95% CI -3.6, 0.4) in the placebo group. Repeated measures ANOVA also showed significant difference (P=0.0001) between the groups. Natrum muriaticum, Calcarea carbonica, Sulphur, Thuja occidentalis, Nitric acid and Medorrhinum were frequently prescribed. Conclusion: Individualized homoeopathy produced a significantly different hypotensive effect than placebo.
  2 14,500 1,560
A multi-centric double-blind randomized homoeopathic pathogenetic trial of Gymnema sylvestre
Goutam Rakshit, JP Singh, SD Pathak, Ch Kishan Banoth, PK Chandra, Rajpal , Sujata Kumari Choudhury, Vinay Kr Singh
January-March 2013, 7(1):9-21
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.114270  
Objective: To elicit the pathogenetic response of Gymnema sylvestre in homoeopathic potencies on apparently healthy human volunteers. Methodology: Gymnema sylvestre was proved by the Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy through double-blind placebo-controlled method. The study was carried out at four centers. The drug was proved in two potencies (6C and 30C) on 63 apparently healthy volunteers who were selected after conducting pre-trial medical examination by the medical specialists and routine laboratory investigations. In the first phase volunteers were given 56 doses (04 doses per day for 14 days) of placebo. In the next two phases 56 doses (04 doses per day for 14 days) of each potency or placebo were consumed. The symptoms generated during the trial period were noted by the volunteers and elaborated by the proving masters. The data obtained from all the four centers was compiled at proving-cum-data processing cell at CCRH headquarters after decoding. Results: Out of 37 provers who were on actual drug trial, 16 manifested symptoms. The drug was able to produce symptoms in each potency in most of the parts of the body. Conclusion: The pathogenetic responses elicited during the drug proving trial expand the scope of use of the drug Gymnema sylvestre and will benefit the research scholars and clinicians. The generated symptoms of the drug will carry more meaning when verified clinically.
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To evaluate the role of homoeopathic medicines as add-on therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis on NSAIDs: A retrospective study
Tapas K Kundu, Afroz F Shaikh, Sindhu M Jacob
January-March 2014, 8(1):24-30
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.129674  
Background: Conventional management of Rhematiod Arthritis (RA) includes administration of Non- Steroidal Anti- Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) like Methotrixate and anti-tumor necrosis factor α monoclonal antibody (anti-TNFά). Gastric ulcers, bleeding and perforation are the most common known adverse reactions found associated with excessive consumption of NSAIDs. The homoeopathic system of medicine improves the general well being, that is, Quality of Life (QoL) in addition to reducing the pain and disability. Objective: To evaluate the patients with RA receiving homoeopathic medicines with respect to QoL, Disease Activity Score (DAS), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), morning stiffness/pain and frequency of analgesics after homoeopathic intervention. Design: This is a retrospective analysis of the role of homoeopathic medicines in RA. Patients diagnosed as sero-positive for RA antigen receiving homeopathic medicines were analysed for DAS, QoL, frequency of analgesics, ESR and pain/morning stiffness. Materials and Methods: Ten cases testing sero-positive for RA with at least four clinical signs were evaluated from single homoeopathic Out-Patient Department (OPD) from February 2009 and February 2011. Cases were analysed to find out the role of homoeopathic constitutional similimum in people with RA. Changes in DAS, ESR, pain/morning stiffness and QoL were considered as outcome measure. Results: Homoeopathic constitutional medicines were found to reduce the intensity of pain in patients with RA (t = 4.3733, P < 0.01) along with reduction in consumption of NSAIDs (t = 2.4, P < 0.05). The DAS reduced in all 10 patients (t = 2.67, P < 0.01). The QoL was also found to improve under homoeopathic medication (t = 4.044, P < 0.01) and no further deterioration joint/disability was observed in any of the 10 patients. Mean ESR improved to 19.5 from 38.1 (t = 2.235, P < 0.05). Out of 10, 3 (30%) patients were found to be sero-negative after homoeopathic constitutional similimum. Conclusion: Homoeopathic constitutional similimum improves the QoL of patients with RA by reducing intensity of pain, limiting disability and reducing disease activity, thus causing improvement in general and disease condition in particular. It also limits the need of analgesics and DMARDs in RA.
  2 90,938 10,984
Homoeopathic management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A randomised placebo-controlled pilot trial
Praveen Oberai, S Gopinadhan, Roja Varanasi, Alok Mishra, Vikram Singh, Chaturbhuja Nayak
October-December 2013, 7(4):158-167
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.123389  
Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of individualised homoeopathic medicines in treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Design: Randomised placebo-controlled single-blind pilot trial. Setting: Central Research Institute (Homoeopathy), Kottayam, Kerala, India from June 2009 to November 2011. Participants: Children aged 6-15 years meeting the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for ADHD. Interventions: A total of 61 patients (Homoeopathy = 30, placebo = 31) were randomised to receive either individualised homoeopathic medicine in fifty millesimal (LM) potency or placebo for a period of one year. Outcome measures: Conner's Parent Rating Scale-Revised: Short (CPRS-R (S)), Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-SS), Clinical Global Impression- Improvement Scale (CGI-IS) and Academic performance. Results: A total of 54 patients (homoeopathy = 27, placebo = 27) were analysed under modified intention to treat (ITT). All patients in homoeopathy group showed better outcome in baseline adjusted General Linear Model (GLM) repeated measures ANCOVA for oppositional, cognition problems, hyperactivity and ADHD Index (domains of CPRS-R (S)) and CGI-IS at T3, T6, T9 and T12 (P = 0.0001). The mean baseline-adjusted treatment difference between groups at month 12 from baseline for all individual outcome measures favoured homoeopathy group; Oppositional (−16.4, 95% CI - 20.5 to − 12.2, P = 0.0001), Cognition problems (−15.5, 95% CI − 19.2 to − 11.8, P = 0.0001), Hyperactivity (−20.6, 95% CI − 25.6 to − 15.4, P = 0.0001), ADHD I (−15.6, 95% CI − 19.5 to − 11.6, P = 0.0001), Academic performance 14.4%, 95% CI 8.3 to 20.5, P = 0.0001), CGISS (−1.6, 95% CI − 1.9 to − 1.2, P = 0.0001), CGIIS (−1.6, 95% CI − 2.3 to -0.9, P = 0.0001). Conclusion: This pilot study provides evidence to support the therapeutic effects of individualised homoeopathic medicines in ADHD children. However, the results need to be validated in multi-center randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.
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Use of homoeopathic remedies in the management of learning disabilities
Kumar M Dhawale, Madhavi P Tamboli, Mariyam Y Katawala, Namita N Tambitkar, Prashant P Tamboli
April-June 2014, 8(2):87-94
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.135641  
Aims: The objective of the study was to assess the therapeutic usefulness of Homoeopathy in the management of LD, viz., dyslexia and dysgraphia, to ascertain the role of homoeopathic medicines and verify their characteristic symptoms in the management of various types of LD to establish verified characteristic symptoms of medicines used in the management of various types of LD. Settings and Design: A 3-year randomised double blind case control study was carried out on 67 children between ages 8-12 years fulfilling the criteria of LD (ICD-10) for dyslexia and dysgraphia with a minimal observation period of one year. The study was conducted in three Marathi-medium schools in Mumbai. Material and Methods: 67 children between ages 8-12 years fulfilling the criteria of LD (ICD-10) for dyslexia and dysgraphia were studied for a minimal observation period of one year. All received remedial education as it is the standard mode of management. 32 children constituted Group I and were administered the indicated homoeopathic medicine in the 200 th potency in infrequent repetition while 35 children from Group II were given placebo. The children and the Remedial Educators who were the assessors were blinded for the study. Statistical Analysis Used: t-test was done for statistical analysis. Results: The children under homoeopathic treatment with remedial education showed an early response to remedial inputs and a statistically significant change in the indicators of dyslexia and dysgraphia. There was also a significant change in the co-morbid behavioural condition notably Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study not only helped verify the characteristic symptoms of the remedies from Materia Medica useful in LD but also was able to report clinical symptoms which have not been reported in source books. 53.12% of children needed Calcarea salts. The other significant remedy indicated in 9.3% children was Medorrhinum, Argenticum nitricum, Calc-flour, and Natrum salts were indicated in 6.25% children. Conclusion: Homoeopathic intervention when combined with standard remedial education has a definite role in bringing about an early change in all parameters of LD. It also assists in bringing about a change in treating the co-morbid conditions, commonly Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD/ADHD). The improvements started simultaneously in most of the areas except in speed of reading and reading comprehension, repetition in reading and omission of punctuation in writing.
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RESEARCH PROTOCOL
Homoeopathy in polycystic ovarian syndrome: A randomized placebo-controlled pilot study
Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy
January-March 2014, 8(1):3-8
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.129671  
Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an emerging health problem in young females characterized by ovarian dysfunction and hyperandrogenism. Existing information indicates a positive role of homoeopathy but more rigorous studies are desirable. This protocol has been developed to undertake a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of homoeopathic intervention using established diagnostic criteria. Methods/Design: It will be a multi-centric, randomized, placebo controlled pilot study with a 6-month intervention and follow up period. Minimum 60 cases fulfilling the eligibility criteria will be enrolled and randomized to receive either the homoeopathic intervention or the identical placebo. Both the arms follow lifestyle modification for weight reduction. Primary endpoint will be the establishment of regular menstrual cycle along with improvement in either ultrasonology or hirsutism/acne. Secondary endpoints will be to compare the changes in total and individual domain scores of PCOS questionnaire at monthly interval and the changes in ultrasound of polycystic ovaries. For the primary outcome and each of the secondary outcomes, both per protocol and modified intention to treat analysis will be done. Discussion: This pilot study has been planned considering the varied presentation of PCOS as per international diagnostic criteria and accordingly the composite endpoints have been kept for evaluation. The outcome of this pilot study will help in planning a definite study. Trial registration: CTRI/2013/09/003983 [Registered on: 16/09/2013].
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* Source: CrossRef
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