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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 260-266

Pharmacognostical studies of Smilax aspera Linn. – A herbal drug


1 Drug Standardisation Unit (H), Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2 Department of Drug Standardization, Dr. Anjali Chatterjee Regional Research Institute for Homoeopathy, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
3 Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Satish Patel
Drug Standardisation Unit (H), O.U.B-32, Vikrampuri, Road No. 4, Habsiguda, Hyderabad - 500 007, Telangana
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijrh.ijrh_13_20

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Background: Smilax aspera L. (sarsaparilla or prickly ivy) is a perennial climber from the family Smilacaceae. Its root and rhizome are used as alterative, demulcent, depurative, diaphoretic, diuretic, stimulant and tonic. Objective: To perform standardization of root and rhizome of S. aspera for authentication and identification of raw drug by pharmacognostical, physiochemical, powder and finish product evaluation. Materials and Methods: Air-dried rhizome and roots were boiled, sectioned and stained for macroscopical and microscopical analysis. For physicochemical studies, rhizome and roots were coarsely powdered and subjected for determination of extractive values, ash values, chemical constituents, weight per millilitre, alcohol content, total solids and loss on drying. Finished product analyses (chromatographic studies, sediments, pH and total solid) were also undertaken. Results: The root was longitudinally wrinkled, about 3 mm in diameter with numerous branching, rootless, tough and flexible. Cortex consisted of 18–20 rows of parenchymatous cells; xylem and phloem were arranged in a radiate manner. Rhizome was wrinkled, hard and brown externally and white or light-yellow internally. The outer cortex consisted of polygonal parenchymatous cells. The findings of physicochemical determination of raw drugs including maximum extractive values in alcohol were 5.67% w/w, 0.1% w/w foreign matter, 8.90% w/w moisture content, 10.60% w/w total ash, etc., and finished product parameter showed pH near to 7, total solid 1.07% w/v and 50% v/v alcohol content. Conclusion: The data represented in this article may be used as distinctive diagnostic characters for proper identification, authentication of raw drug to ensure purity, quality and efficacy of drug S. aspera.


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