|Year : 2020 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 100-109
A review on the role of Homoeopathy in epidemics with some reflections on COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2)
Anupriya Chaudhary, Anil Khurana
Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, New Delhi, India
|Date of Submission||17-Apr-2020|
|Date of Acceptance||04-May-2020|
|Date of Web Publication||29-May-2020|
Dr. Anupriya Chaudhary
Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, 61-65 Institutional Area, Opposite D Block, Janakpuri, New Delhi
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background and Objectives: While the world is grappling with the current pandemic of COVID-19, medical fraternity and policy makers are still trying to find ways to control its spread in the absence of any definite treatment protocol. The escalating medical costs of infrastructural requirements in health care as well as development of vaccine are but a few challenges being faced. Alternative approaches to handle the situation require to be explored. This article reviews the role homoeopathy has played in controlling epidemics afflicting the mankind in the past while summarizing the scope of this approach in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A literature search was conducted using various bibliographic databases like PubMed etc, google search engines to collect all relevant research and review articles, reports, archived texts, you tube recordings, webpages etc. in English language published uptil March 2020. Results: Scientific evidence in various epidemics clearly showcase that Homoeopathy can be used both therapeutically and /or as prophylactic with success using approaches like Genus epidemicus, nosodes etc. Its greatest successes have been recorded in the prevention & treatment of flu like illnesses. Conclusion: Homoeopathy has stood the test of time over centuries as a notable approach in controlling morbidity as well as mortality in epidemics. Administration of the homoeopathic “Genus epidemicus” as a prophylactic for general public or adjuvant homoeopathic treatment in symptomatic cases can be an inexpensive, safe and feasible approach to manage and alleviate the compounding fear and panic that COVID-19 is creating across the globe. National polices & strategies to tackle the pandemic need to be revisited.
Keywords: COVID-19, Epidemics, Genus epidemicus, Homoeopathy, SARS-CoV-2
|How to cite this article:|
Chaudhary A, Khurana A. A review on the role of Homoeopathy in epidemics with some reflections on COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2). Indian J Res Homoeopathy 2020;14:100-9
|How to cite this URL:|
Chaudhary A, Khurana A. A review on the role of Homoeopathy in epidemics with some reflections on COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2). Indian J Res Homoeopathy [serial online] 2020 [cited 2021 May 11];14:100-9. Available from: https://www.ijrh.org/text.asp?2020/14/2/100/285288
| Introduction|| |
An unprecedented outbreak of pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan City, Hubei province in China, amounted to 27 cases by the 31st December, 2019. A novel coronavirus was identified as the causative agent behind the outbreak and was subsequently termed COVID-19 by the World Health Organization (WHO). Within a month, the virus crossed borders and with more than 9,000 COVID cases reported globally, the WHO declared the Chinese outbreak of COVID-19 to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on the 30th January, 2020, alarming about the high risk to countries with vulnerable health systems., The unrealised viral disease continued to engulf nations worldwide and the WHO declared the COVID-19 to be a pandemic on the 13th March, 2020.
Currently, as on 17th April, 2020, the virus has affected 205 countries and territories and 2 international conveyances, namely the Diamond Princess cruise ship harboured in Yokohama Japan and the Holland America's MS Zaandam cruise, all together counting to 2190,010 COVID cases globally. India has reported 13, 664 confirmed cases across 30 states and UTs so far and is now rising fast with a steep upward trend.
In the absence of any known conventional treatment or vaccination so far, and lack of guidelines, many research papers and information available on the web build the knowledge pool, which is serving as the basis for managing/combating this novel illness and guiding policy decisions.
However, there are hardly any research papers throwing light about the possible role of the AYUSH systems, in general, or Homoeopathy, in particular, in controlling the spread of this pandemic.
| Methods|| |
A literature search was conducted using various bibliographic databases like PubMed etc., google search engines to collect all relevant research and review articles, reports, homoeopathic archived texts, literature, youtube video recordings, webpages etc. published uptil March 2020 to review in detail, information indicating the scope of Homoeopathy in the past, as well as the current scenario, and suggest the most appropriate approach to manage the current menace and reflection on policy decisions.
| Results of the Review|| |
Epidemics in the Past: How Did Homoeopathy Help?
Epidemics have perturbed the humankind from the time to time, be it plague in Europe in the Middle Ages, smallpox, yellow fever in the Americas or the infamous worldwide flu pandemic of 1918–1919 which is estimated to have killed 50–100 million people. To add on, recently, there have been epidemics of Swine flu, Zika, encephalitis, Ebola, influenza, chikungunya, dengue, etc.
Scientific evidence in almost all such epidemics clearly showcases that Homoeopathy can be used both therapeutically and as prophylactic in epidemic diseases with success, an account of which is summarised below.
Prophylactic usage of Homoeopathy
Just as is true for homoeopathic treatment of individual persons based on the unique principle of individualisation, Hahnemann has advised in his Organon of Medicine to observe carefully each epidemic disease as 'a phenomenon of unique character' that must be distinguished from the previous outbreaks. To gather the picture of the disease, the 'totality of characteristic signs and symptoms', he suggests observing several cases to formulate a 'Genus epidemicus (GE)' for that particular epidemic.
'In the course of writing down the symptoms of several cases of this kind the sketch of the disease picture becomes ever more and more complete, not more spun out and verbose, but more significant (more characteristic), and including more of the peculiarities of this collective disease; on the one hand, the general symptoms (e.g., loss of appetite, sleeplessness, etc.) become precisely defined as to their peculiarities; and on the other hand, the more marked and special symptoms which are peculiar to but few diseases and of rarer occurrence, at least in the same combination, become prominent and constitute what is characteristic of this malady. All those affected with the disease prevailing at a given time have certainly contracted it from one and the same source and hence are suffering from the same disease; however, the whole extent of such an epidemic disease and the totality of its symptoms (the knowledge whereof, which is essential for enabling us to choose the most suitable homoeopathic remedy for this array of symptoms, is obtained by a complete survey of the morbid picture) cannot be learnt from one single patient, but is only to be perfectly deduced (abstracted) and ascertained from the sufferings of several patients of different constitutions' (Organon of Medicine, §102).
He elucidates in various articles that this remedy or a group of remedies suitable to various phases or stages of the epidemic, found after a detailed study of the characteristic symptoms of patients, afflicted with the epidemic shall prevent the disease in those unaffected with the epidemic so far. While it is also understood that in those affected, this GE may even serve as a therapeutic aid in the initial stage of the disease, if symptoms corroborate.
Preventive use of Homoeopathy was first applied in 1801 during an epidemic of scarlet fever in Königslütter, Germany, when Hahnemann prescribed a single dose of Belladonna, as the GE to susceptible children in the town with 100% success.
Some available data from the olden days reveal the prophylactic success of Belladonna for another epidemic such as scarlet fever (1820s) where only 7.5% of the 1,646 children who were given the medicine remained unprotected. Camphora, Cuprum metallicum and Veratrum album proved successful in different stages of the Cholera epidemic (1831–1832) and it was reported that mortality rate in European homoeopathic hospitals was 7%–10%, whereas with conventional treatment, it varied between 40 and 80%. Camphora saved another epidemic of Cholera (1846), where mortality rate amongst patients treated with Homoeopathy was 5%–16% as compared to 54%–90% amongst patients treated conventionally.,,,, In addition to the historical data, some scientifically conducted research studies in the recent past showing the beneficial role of homoeopathic GE in preventing the spread of diseases in various disease outbreaks such as chikungunya, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis and cholera have made the application of the 'GE prophylactic' stand the test of time.
The Belladonna, Calcarea carbonicum, Tuberculinum (BCT) regime adopted in a phased manner as a preventive for Japanese encephalitis (JE) in 1999 for a period of 3 years brought down the mortality and morbidity rates of JE significantly in the state of Andhra Pradesh. This intervention was based on symptom similarity, complementary relationship, virulence and underlying miasms.
For a series of dengue fever outbreaks over the years in Brazil (2001–2012), identified GE Eupatorium perfoliatum or a combination of remedies based on the epidemic picture could significantly control the occurrence by 80%–90%.,
A study by Rejikumar et al. in 2006 on 1061 people living in parts of Kerala badly affected by Chikungunya epidemic showed prevention in 82.19% people after administration of homoeopathic medicine Eupatorium perfoliatum 200C (three doses daily for 5 consecutive days). Further, a 19.76% relative risk reduction in medicinal group (on GE Bryonia alba) compared to placebo was observed in the double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted by the Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH) during the chikungunya epidemic outbreak in the State of Kerala, India, in 2007.
During the 2016 outbreak of dengue and chikungunya in Delhi, Eupatorium perfoliatum as GE could prevent about 85% of population in the homoeopathic group from the disease compared to the no intervention cohort.
Interestingly, the protective effects through antiviral properties of Belladonna have also been observed in Japanese encephalitis in preclinical studies conducted by CCRH in collaboration with School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, and in molecular studies conducted in collaboration with King's George Medical University, Lucknow.,
There have been many more outbreaks of epidemics of dengue and malaria, where homoeopathic GEs have been distributed with resultant success (absence of disease), though these have not been recognised due to lack of documentation.
Examples from the past as well as the recent times undoubtedly show the repeatedly verified power of the rightly selected GE in preventing the occurrence of the disease in unaffected persons during an epidemic. Not to forget that each epidemic of even a previously occurred disease is also considered as a fresh one, so that mistakes of dismissing the symptomatic totality of the ongoing epidemic done by few disciples of Hahnemann himself during later epidemics of scarlet fever and conjunctivitis in Pittsburgh are not repeated.,,
Prevention through nosodes
A concept that emerged from Homoeopathy is the application of nosodes (remedies prepared from the actual cause of the illness, i.e., microorganisms, or from its by-products) as isoproprophylaxis (IP), to treat the same condition. It is somewhat akin to conventional vaccination, although the preparation is made in the homoeopathic manner of potentisation, with serial dilutions and shaking (succussion) at each step.
A few documented experiences, both successful and unsuccessful, regarding use of such remedies for prevention of diseases, on the one hand reflect the preliminary positive evidence of this kind of approach, while on the other hand, raise doubts about reliability owing to variable results across populations.
Texeira in his article writes that 'the notion of universal and indiscriminate use of 'isopathic' prophylaxis (that cannot be rated 'homeopathic') began to be spread out by Arthur Grimmer and Dorothy Shepherd, where a large number of diluted and agitated biotherapics prepared from parts of sub-products of disease or its etiologic agent were prescribed without taking into account the similitude of symptoms (pathogenetic experimentation) for prevention of almost all endemic and epidemic current diseases, with no scientific evidence whatsoever supporting their efficacy and safety in humans'.,
Comparative trials in the history, seeking to investigate the protective role of the nosodes remedies such as Diphtherinum nosode in Diphtheria and nosode for Tularemia prepared from tissues infected by Franciscella tularensis compared with modern vaccination did not show any better role of IP.,, A few reported statistics of the adverse effects of using this approach reveal that they are similar to conventional vaccination.
Isoprophylaxis for prevention of epidemics due to 'bacterial agents' has been prominently employed by Brazil and Cuba in the recent past. Back in 1974 and 1998 in Brazil, the use of Meningococcinum showed a near 95% protection against the meningococcal disease over a span of 1 year., While Cuba used it to control various epidemics such as leptospirosis, hepatitis a, dengue, Swine flu and pneumococcal disease from 2007 to 2010, the results from the leptospirosis episode in 2008 have been the most promising where disease surveillance statistics revealed an 84% decreased incidence of the disease in those provinces which were treated with a nosode (prepared from four strains of inactivated Leptospira) compared with previous years, despite the occurrence of three large hurricanes. In contrast, the incidence of leptospirosis in the other, untreated, provinces of Cuba rose by 21.7% during the same time.,
Another nosode Oscilococcinum®(combination manufactured from wild duck heart and liver, a well-known reservoir for influenza viruses) has been variably used as 'specific preventive' against flu-like syndromes or for their treatment in a study. Insufficient good evidence is however available to enable robust conclusions to be made about its use so far.,,
Influenzinum, a nosode prepared from the flu vaccine, has been clinically used by some practitioners based on its clinical application in influenza-like illness (ILI). Anin vitro study on the biotherapy prepared from the infectious influenza A virus, namely Influenzinum RC, reported that it could induce relevant metabolic and morphological alterations in the host cells.,
Clinical controlled studies confirming the efficacy and safety of this approach of using 'dynamised isoprophylaxis' (mistakenly known as 'homeoprophylaxis') by many are still lacking, while fundamental research supporting the immunoprophylactic activity of this method is also yet to be explored. The use of these medicines on humans without prior human provings as well as absence of standardisation of the source material for preparation of such medicines is a cause of concern and leads to inviting controversies.
Therapeutic use of Homoeopathy
Owing to the unique approach and possibility to provide early treatment based on the semiology of the patient in any diseased condition, which helps in checking the disease progression, Homoeopathy has been a bane in many epidemics since antiquity.
Historically, homoeopathic treatment with indicated homoeopathic remedy based on individualisation has helped relieve and save lives in epidemics of diarrhoea, typhus or hospital fever in 1813, diphtheria in 1862–1864 (84% mortality rate for conventional treatment and 16% for Homoeopathy) and keratoconjunctivitis in Cuba in 1995 etc.
In the recent years, successes of adjunct homoeopathic treatment in epidemics of dengue and acute encephalitis syndrome have been reported in studies conducted by CCRH. Adjuvant homoeopathic treatment given to dengue haemorrhagic cases at a tertiary care hospital during the dengue outbreak in 2015 in Delhi showed that patients who received Homoeopathy had rapid rise in platelet count and less number of days of hospital stay compared to those who received standard care alone. Similarly, in acute encephalitis syndrome/Japanese encephalitis, Homoeopathy as an adjuvant to the Institutional Management protocol (IMP) could decrease death rate by 15% in comparison to those who received only IMP.
Another study in 2010–2011 clearly puts forward the promising role of homoeopathic treatment in cases of chikungunya and its sequalae post-chikungunya chronic arthritis (PCCA) with complete recovery in more than 84.5% and 90% cases, respectively.
Results of another trial in dengue fever with a homoeopathic combination remedy of 10 drugs along with standard supportive therapy showed statistically significant improvements in blood platelet levels, haematocrit and white blood cell counts in the homoeopathic combination group compared with supportive therapy at the end of 6 days.
Although there exists ample evidence of the effectiveness of individualised Homoeopathy for epidemic diseases as well endemic ones such as Malaria, policy decisions, permission for access to patients, mobilising such a huge force in epidemics and thereafter accuracy of the prescription, which can vary depending on the skill of the prescriber, are few challenges that exist.
| the Story of Homoeopathy and the Flu's|| |
Absolutely relevant to the current pandemic of the novel viral illness, is the story of Homoeopathy and the Flu pandemics in the past. As in other epidemics, Homoeopathy has proven its mettle not only as a prophylactic in flu-like illnesses but also as a line of treatment leading to faster recovery, decreased morbidity as well as mortality.
The flu pandemics in the 20th century caused considerably high mortality: the H1N1 Spanish flu (1918–1919) claimed 50–100 million victims, the H2N2 Asian flu (1957) 1 million and the H3N2 Hong Kong flu (1968) around 700 thousand.,,
Talking of the ones which affected human population including the ones in Brazil and Mexico in 2009, the Spanish flu which occurred during the final stages of World War One (WW1) in 1918–1919 has been one of the worst pandemics, of any kind, experienced by humans in the recorded history.,,
An interesting find in the history of this Spanish flu are the texts and epidemiological data detailing the mass effectiveness of homoeopathic treatment in reducing mortality by use of individualised treatment of epidemic foci in different areas and countries. Few possible homoeopathic remedies, as the epidemic genius on the grounds on observations of series of cases and their characteristic symptoms, were collated and recommended by a team of physicians of the British Homeopathic Society of London. Several remedies, such as Arsenicum album, Baptisia tinctoria, Eupatorium perfoliatum and mostly Gelsemium sempervirens and Bryonia alba in different stages of the disease, times and places, saved lives.,,
Marino, in his paper, has given an explicit account of the unbelievably low mortality rate from usage of Homoeopathy extracted from his study of the papers by Winston and Dewey, in comparison to a 30%–60% for those treated by conventional physicians. He tabulates the data reported by few American homoeopathic physicians in Dewey's interesting compilation of verbatim notes from 50 physicians of their experience with the flu pandemic showing a mortality rate of 0%–1.05% only in persons treated with Homoeopathy across the Americas.
The infamous flu pandemic not only built trust in the hearts of many treated with Homoeopathy but also clearly put across the inefficacy and devastating depression of the system caused by treatment with analgesics of that time, the most common being aspirin, owing to which almost every doctor confirmed deaths due to a virulent pneumonia.,
More recently, Andre Saine, after an exhaustive study of the available data of 05 different surveys conducted amongst American homoeopathic physicians, reported a 0.7% mortality rate in persons treated with Homoeopathy during fall-winter of 1918–1919, while the odds ratios of surviving combined influenza with pneumonia (CIP) with Homoeopathy were 9.0 (95% CI: 8.2–9.9) as compared to persons taking conventional treatment alone (P < 0.0001).,
Another noteworthy application of Homoeopathy was witnessed in the 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic when CCRH conducted 02 studies in India: a multicentre study in 2009–2010 to capture the symptomatic picture and response after homoeopathic management of patients with ILI across India. Arsenicum album was the most popular choice of prescription, which was also found to corroborate with the its selection as the GE for the epidemic previously., Another multicentre, single-blind randomised, placebo-controlled study in 2009–2010 clearly established the significant effect of individualised homoeopathic treatment in the patients suffering from ILI as well as in controlling complication/sequel rate in the homoeopathic intervention groups.
Similar observation of a positive role of individualised homoeopathic treatment in patients suffering from ILI was reported by Frei in the prospective outcome study on 52 patients in Switzerland during an H1N1 epidemic where 62% of the patients treated with Homoeopathy were cured within 48 h, another 25% within 96 h. To add to this list was another one in France during the 2009–2010 influenza season which studied the characteristics and management of patients visiting allopathic general practitioners (AGPs) and homoeopathic general practitioners (HGPs). The study concluded Homoeopathy is widely accepted for the treatment of ILI and does not preclude the use of allopathic medications. Furthermore, patients treated with homoeopathic medications were more satisfied with their treatment than other patients.
Few studies (detailed in the section above) on drugs such as Oscilococcinum and Influenzinum, used either as 'dynamised isoprophylaxis' or for treatment of ILI based on clinical indications have been reported which indicate a need for further research.,,,,
| Homoeopathy and the Current Covid-19 Challenge|| |
The choice of Homoeopathy for tackling the current COVID-19 pandemic seems promising in the light of such a strong history of proven efficacy over centuries that can be employed in both the ways presented above.
With a vision to find a solution to the ailing humanity during this time, and as was responsible on the part of the CCRH, the Scientific Advisory Board of the Council (consisting of eminent homoeopathic experts from various parts of India), in a meeting held on 28 January 2020, had an in-depth discussion to find out a possible preventive for recent outbreak of corona virus in China. In the absence of access to the patients afflicted with the disease, the signs and symptoms of the patients were referred from the recent publication from Wuhan, China, published in Lancet titled, 'Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China' to arrive at a group of remedies covering the characteristic presentation of the disease. After repertorisation using synthesis repertory, and intensive deliberations amongst the board members, Arsenicum album was found to be the most suitable medicine as a possible preventive. Literature records, sphere of action of the remedy, its ability to match the stages and phases of the disease and previous identification of the remedy as a vast prescription with significant effect for treating ILI were also considered for taking a decision. Based on the above, a health advisory was thereafter issued by the Ministry of AYUSH to curb the spread of corona virus infection using the Homoeopathic medicine Arsenicum album 30 for prevention, along with the general measures recommended by the WHO.
Fundamental research has also shown the ultra-high potentised dilutions of this drug to modulate immune responses as well as gene modification, as one of the constituents in a formulation.,
Availability of more clinical information about the disease, in due course, after access to a considerable number of COVID-positive patients at various locations (patients of different constitutions affected with the same virulent agent) shall help formulate the complete peculiar picture of the disease and also test the suitability of Arsenicum album as a GE, which, by and large remains the most suitable GE in the current available information and corresponds to the available semiology, bears a pathological similarity to the disease and has a notable action on the respiratory system.
In addition, therapeutic aid of indicated homoeopathic medicine (prescribed by experiences of Registered Homoeopathic Practitioners) as adjuvant therapy in COVID patients would be a fruitful approach to alleviate the sufferings of the patients, halt progress of the disease, decrease the chance of any complications and thus reduce mortality.
| Other Arising Opinions Across the Globe|| |
Existing at this time are also some homoeopathic physicians and big pharmaceutical companies who have opined and largely circulated on social media about the use of homoeopathic remedies such as Camphora, Bryonia, Calcarea carb., Thymulin, Influenzinum and a few mother tinctures or combinations of homoeopathic drugs (not proved on humans), etc., to have a protective effect against the COVID-19.,
Few remedies such as Camphora suggested by doctors Sankaran and Kasariyan based on their observation of few patients in Iran seem to be suitable in advanced stage of the disease with lot of prostration, which has not been a very common presentation in the cases reported so far and thus may not be the GE due to paucity of cases seen. This intervention was also reported to have no preventive success in 120 persons by a French doctor, although few patients who suffered from diarrhoea recovered promptly with it while other symptomatic cases who took Bryonia immediately at the onset of the disease did not progress to its severe form or die.
Communications available on the web (written or oral presentations during the webinar organised by CCRH on World Homoeopathy day 2020) from physicians of other countries who have treated few COVID cases report about the use of few indicated individualised remedies such as Chinimum sulph, Grindelia, Gelsemium, Bryonia,Phosphorus, Belladonna and Antim tart,, while some published views from a noted physician highlight important facts about this epidemic.
While respecting their intention to help the public, it has however been observed that many of the GE suggestions have no scientific evidence to them and are mere opinions which have created more confusion and panic in the minds of the public as well as the government which defeats the entire purpose of prevention and rather makes them more susceptible. This is a time when propagation of different ideas and schools of thought should not be the motive and only a unified scientific approach can help the entire world.
| Conclusion|| |
Vaccines, anti-viral medications and antibiotics have been the gold standard for conventional treatments for various epidemic diseases so far, even though published sources proving their efficacy beyond doubt in epidemics are hard to find. Besides issues such as difficulties with developing and disseminating vaccines, their side effects, viral mutations, exorbitant costs involved, the growing problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria are undermining these approaches. Innovative approaches for treating communicable diseases are being sought after by the WHO and some had been welcomed during the Ebola outbreak in 2014 when their expert group recommended that 'it is ethical to offer unproven interventions with as yet unknown efficacy and adverse effects, as potential treatment or prevention' keeping in view no vaccine or anti-virals are available'.
Administration of the specific GE, derived after careful assessment of the characteristic picture of the disease across regions, and treatment of symptomatic cases with adjuvant individualised Homoeopathy, can be the most viable, safe, inexpensive and effective approach to manage COVID-19 disease outbreak globally. There is immense possibility of further validating the proposed management with Homoeopathy in a short span of time in quarantine centres with suspected cases of COVID-19.
In India, after the Ministry of AYUSH issued an advisory early in January 2020, for prophylactic application of Arsenicum album 30, many institutions started distributing it to the masses. However, due to advocacy of strict measures for social distancing and eventual declaration of nationwide complete lockdown since 24th March, 2020, these efforts have taken a backfoot, but are being revived at the State level by issue of fresh advisories. Policy decisions about government permission to treat such cases are, however, awaited in India. On the other hand, at the global level, Cuba has also issued directions for distribution of a combination homoeopathic remedy to the unaffected population, while physicians in Hong Kong and Italy have been treating a few patients of COVID-19 with Homoeopathy.,
It is necessary to re-think about the strategies and national polices which are trying to achieve success over this epidemic, by only relying on investments made on hugely infrastructure driven, highly cost intensive, health-care services. Taking an example from China who suggested and employed its Traditional Chinese Medicine in the ever spreading disease outbreak in Wuhan,,,, decisions about the use of community based socially acceptable, low cost and gentle traditional medicine knowledge with its health preservation-based approaches are the need of the hour.
Soon after the WHO declared the COVID-19 to be a pandemic, the Director General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus addressed a press gathering where he empathised on words of greater importance like Prevention, Preparedness, Public health, Political leadership and People over the most prevalent and commonly experienced word 'Panic'. Adoption of an integrated approach in the current scenario can help achieve all the above with ease.
The authors acknowledge Mrs Meenakshi Bhatia, Junior Librarian, CCRH for providing full texts of few very old archived homoeopathic texts.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
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