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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 91-99

Pharmacognostic and physicochemical study of Urtica urens L.: A drug used in Homoeopathy

1 Drug Standardisation Unit (H), Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2 Central Council for Research In Homoeopathy, New Delhi, India

Correspondence Address:
Mr. Satish Patel
Drug Standardisation Unit (H), O.U.B-32, Vikrampuri, Road No. 4, Habsiguda, Hyderabad - 500 007, Telangana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijrh.ijrh_50_18

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Background: Urtica urens L. (Family Urticaceae), known as annual nettle, dwarf nettle, small nettle, dog nettle or burning nettle, is used in the treatment of arthritis, uric acid diseases, benign prostatic hyperplasia and burn. In Homoeopathy, the whole plant is used for the treatment of gout, uric acid diathesis, joint pain, lithiasis, urticaria and agalactia and burns. Objective: The objectives of the present study were to investigate morpho-anatomical, powder and physicochemical standards of the whole plant of Urtica urens for authentication and identification of raw drug. Materials and Methods: The current study includes macroscopical and microscopical study of root, stem, leaf and powder and physicochemical studies of whole plant powder and mother tincture of Urtica urens. Results: The taproot is rounded, thick and brown; leaves are long petiolate, elliptic to broadly ovate; stem 0.5–1 cm thick, rounded and branched. Qualitative and quantitative microscopic studies showed the distinguishing characters of root stem and leaf. In physicochemical studies of the drug, extractive values in alcohol and water were ≤7.52 and ≤13.88% w/w, respectively; loss on drying, total, acid insoluble and water-soluble ash were found to be ≤11.75, ≤24.55, ≤3.59 and ≤6.89% w/w, respectively. In mother tincture, weight per millilitre, alcohol content, total solids, pH and λmax were found to be ≥0.97 g, 47% v/v–52% v/v, ≤1.88% w/v, 7.93 and 266, 279 nm, respectively. Conclusion: The data presented in this communication may be used as diagnostic characters for identification and authentication of raw drug so as to ensure purity, quality and efficacy of homoeopathic drug Urtica urens.

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