• Users Online:516
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 5-11

Action of diosgenin and homoeopathic pathogenesis of Dioscorea villosa

1 Department of Materia Medica, D. N. De Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, National Institute of Homoeopathy, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Date of Web Publication23-Feb-2017

Correspondence Address:
Kisor Kumar Naskar
393, Dhamaitala School Road, Dakshin Jagaddal, Rajpur Sonarpur, Kolkata - 700 151, West Bengal
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0974-7168.200845

Rights and Permissions

Background: Dioscorea villosa is a popular herbal remedy for pains. Early Americans used this to treat colic which is also established in homoeopathic proving and verified clinically along with other important phenomena. Diosgenin is its primary active ingredient. It has been investigated that all possible revealed actions of this plant are due to this ingredient. Objective: The aim of this study is to understand pathological background and prescribing areas of D. villosa by correlating and analyzing Homoeopathic pathogenesis with the knowledge of pathophysiological activities of Diosgenin. Study Method: Information was collected from various researches on animal and human models regarding actions of Diosgenin. Homoeopathic pathogenesis of D. villosa have been studied and analyzed from 'The Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica' by C. Hering and also from the experiences of different authors to find pathological background as well as prescribing areas of D. villosa by correlating with the actions of Diosgenin.
Result: Diosgenin has prominent action on cholesterol metabolism, hormones (oestrogen and dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA]), inflammations, and allergic activities on animal and human models. These pathological actions of Diosgenin have similarity with the pathological background of homoeopathic pathogenesis of D. villosa. Conclusion: Actions of Diosgenin reflect in the homoeopathic pathogenesis of D. villosa such as altered cholesterol metabolism, irregularity of hormonal (DHEA and estrogen) functions, and anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic phenomena with their related manifestations. Moreover, these might be the underlying pathological essence of this drug.

Keywords: Anti-allergic, Anti-cancerous, Anti-diabetic, Anti-inflammatory, Cholesterol metabolism, Dehydroepiandrosterone-oestrogen, Dioscorea villosa, Diosgenin, Homoeopathic pathogenesis

How to cite this article:
Naskar KK, Mishra O. Action of diosgenin and homoeopathic pathogenesis of Dioscorea villosa. Indian J Res Homoeopathy 2017;11:5-11

How to cite this URL:
Naskar KK, Mishra O. Action of diosgenin and homoeopathic pathogenesis of Dioscorea villosa. Indian J Res Homoeopathy [serial online] 2017 [cited 2023 Feb 8];11:5-11. Available from: https://www.ijrh.org/text.asp?2017/11/1/5/200845

  Introduction Top

Dioscorea villosa (Wild Yam) is named after the Greek Physician Dioscorides of the 1st century. It contains saponins, namely Dioscin, which gives Diosgenin on hydrolysis. It is the precursor for synthesis of steroidal hormones. It also contains Dioscorin as an alkaloid.

Diosgenin is considered as the primary active ingredient. Dioscin has similar or overlapping effects to Diosgenin, but there has been little investigation done on the effects of Dioscin alone, Dioscorin has no known physiologic effects. Diosgenin is structurally similar to cholesterol.[1]

Due to structural similarity, its action on cholesterol metabolism is not only hypothesized but has also been proven in several research studies. Diosgenin promotes fecal cholesterol excretion by inhibiting intestinal cholesterol absorption and enhancing biliary secretion.[2]

Diosgenin has oestrogen properties. It may bind with oestrogen receptors of hypothalamus and takes part in negative feedback mechanism of estrogen control.[3]

Wild yam is considered as a precursor to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). DHEA supplements are manufactured from it and considered as a valid source, but the exact mechanisms of its conversion toward hormones in vivo are unknown. Some research studies proved its activity suggesting the same.[4],[5],[6]

In several studies conducted in animal and human models, it has significant anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-diabetic, anti-cancerous properties as well.

  Action of Diosgenin Top

Action in cholesterol metabolism

From several studies, it has been found that Diosgenin has the following properties related to cholesterol metabolism.

In animal models, it has been found that it inhibits cholesterol absorption.[7],[8] Side by side, it increases biliary cholesterol secretion and output as well as altered serum cholesterol levels,[8],[9],[10] increases fecal excretion of cholesterol, decreases plasma cholesterol levels,[11],[12] decreases low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and elevates high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.[13] Not only that, it may also protect from bile salt toxicity.[14] In human model, it has been found that Diosgenin can decrease triglycerides and phospholipids but increase serum HDL.[15] In another study in mice model, Diosgenin significantly decreased serum total cholesterol level while slightly increased HDL level and also found protective effect against atherosclerosis by regulating pro-inflammatory mediators in serum.[16]

Action on oestrogen and dehydroepiandrosterone

Although there is no such direct evidence of conversion of Diosgenin into any hormone, several studies suggest its oestrogen property.[17] This property can be established by its binding with estrogen receptors of the hypothalamus as a part of negative feedback mechanism of estrogen control.

It significantly increased DHEA level in another study on rats.[18]

Action on inflammations and allergic activities

It has significant anti-inflammatory activity as found in different studies in animal models as on sub-inflammatory intestinal inflammation in indomethacin-induced intestinal inflammation in rats,[19] showing immunosuppressive effects by reducing the production of inflammatory mediators.[20] It also has regulatory action on T-cell immunity in intestine of mice with food allergy,[21] suppressive action of immunoglobulin E production on allergen-induced intestine inflammation, and mast cell infiltration and degranulation of food allergy in a murine model.[22] It is also found that Diosgenin has significant anti-inflammatory activity by the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner without any cytotoxicity [23] and proved useful to ameliorate the inflammatory changes in obese adipose tissues.[24]

Action in diabetes

It has anti-diabetic property involving glucose metabolism and might be a novel therapeutic agent.[25],[26] In a study, it has been found that Diosgenin-induced increased DHEA may contribute to the improvement of hyperglycemia through muscular glucose transporter Type 4 signaling pathway activation in type 1 diabetes of rats.[18]

Action in cancer

Different studies also revealed the action of Diosgenin on cancer. Several evidences suggest that it can reduce tumor multiplicity of adenoma or adenocarcinoma in colon,[27],[28] breast adenocarcinoma,[29],[30] hepatocellular carcinoma,[31],[32] gastric cancer,[33] prostate cancer,[34] osteosarcoma,[35] etc.

  Homoeopathic Pathogenesis of Dioscorea Villosa Top

Important pathological conditions as well as manifestations of D. villosa from detailed recorded pathogenesis are seen in 'The Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica' by C. Hering [36] and from the clinical description based on the experiences of pioneers like Dr. T.F. Allen,[37] Dr. William H. Burt,[38] Dr. J.C. Burnett,[39] Dr. Samuel Lilienthal,[40] Dr. P.N. Verma and Dr. Indu Vaid [41] and others.

According to the proving of Dr. Gushing, there was dual action of Dioscorea. In primary effects as erotism and in secondary effects as impotency and both are attended by its peculiar type of spermatorrhea. Dr. Boyd reported that Dioscorea has curative property in spasmodic stricture of urethra with “pain about the umbilicus relieved by pressure; pressure on the rectum; and paroxysmal colic pains.”[42]

Gastrointestinal system

  • Colic - Flatulent colic, bilious colic, and neuralgia of bowels with spasmodic pain in abdomen. Colic with feeble digestive power relieved by stretching the body out or by walking about. This modality has been considered as a characteristic feature of Dioscorea
  • Diarrhoea and dysentery with colic
  • Liver affection – Hard, dry, black stool indicates a diminution of bile, but large doses produce increased secretion of bile as indicated by the papescent, yellow, loose stool [38]
  • Gall stone and much flatulence;[40] along with feeble digestion.[41]

Reproductive system

  • Increased sexual excitement - constant sexual excitement, nocturnal emissions with amorous dreams, and erections when asleep, sometimes without erections. There is also diminished sexual desire with no erections for many days.
  • Severe pain with cramp in flexor tendons of fingers and toes, alternating with false labor pains.

Vascular affections

  • Haemorrhoids with constipation.[38] Haemorrhoids with darting pain shooting to liver. It looks like bunches of grapes with great pain and distress [37]
  • Acute painful varicocele from excess venery or long-lasting unsatisfied desire [39]

Heart affections

Angina pectoris, pains radiate into both arms.


  • Felons - early, when pains are sharp
  • Sciatica right sided, shooting down thigh, <motion.

  Associating Homoeopathic Pathogenesis to Actions of Diosgenin Top

Effects of altered cholesterol metabolism

  • Colic - Symptoms of biliary colic with flatulence and its character has underlying relation with the property of altered cholesterol metabolism
  • Modality of colic - Pain while reclining and relieved by sitting up which is often retroperitoneal [43]
  • Pancreatic cause of abdominal colic - Pancreatic cause of abdominal colic and its affections can also be related to secondary cause of altered cholesterol metabolism or estrogenic effects [44],[45],[46]
  • Atherosclerotic affection of heart - Heart symptoms because of atherosclerotic changes in the arteries, which is due to the same altered cholesterol metabolism. It is found that Diosgenin has protective effect against atherosclerosis [16]
  • Atherosclerosis and sciatica - Atherosclerosis of arteries supplying the lumbar region has been suggested as a mechanism leading to inter-vertebral disc degeneration causing sciatica [47]
  • Hyperlipidemia and neuralgias. In a study, it has been identified that hyperlipidemia is a novel risk factor for peripheral neuropathies. It includes axonal distal polyneuropathy, vision and hearing loss, motor nerve system lesions, and sympathetic nervous system dysfunction.[48]

Irregularities of hormonal functions

  • Sexual excitement, vivid dreams, and emissions - In sexual sphere, action of DHEA can be related to vivid dreams and emissions. However, in a recent study, it has been found that reducing estrogen in men undergoing treatment for low testosterone resulted in a drop in libido and an increase in body fat, even as testosterone levels improved [49]
  • False labor-like pain - Oestrogen has a property to induce the formation of oxytocin receptors in the uterus and make uterus sensitive to oxytocin for expulsion of fetus. Moreover, it also established that oxytocin receptor expression is being modulated by stimulation with estrogen not only in the pregnant but also in the nonpregnant uterus. Hence, estrogenic activity of Dioscorea not only facilitates labor by increasing oxytocin receptors density in uterus but it is also responsible for uterine contractility-associated disorders of the nonpregnant uterus [50]
  • Constipation - Oestrogen has a significant role to develop constipation [51]
  • Chronic venous diseases - In a recent study, it was also found that estrogen receptors play an important role in chronic venous diseases [52]
  • Urethral stricture - In case of male, a large amount of estrogen cause atrophy and fibrosis of the spongy and cavernous bodies of the penis, depriving the urethra of its normal elasticity, which results in stricture.[53]

Anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory actions

  • Diarrhoea or dysentery with colic - Abdominal colic with bowel complaints related to Diarrhoea or dysentery might be related to food allergy [22]
  • Panaritium or felon - Symptoms of peripheral inflammatory changes in the form of panaritium might be related to the anti-inflammatory property of Diosgenin. It can also be explained from the pathology of hypercholesterolemia. It has been found that hypercholesterolemia is also associated with lymphatic vascular changes, leads to obstruction of lymphatic drainage. As a result of that, lack of protective body immune response may maintain this infection as well as inflammatory process.[54]

  Prescribing Areas Revealed from Analyzed Homoeopathic Pathogenesis and Also from Different Actions of Diosgenin Top

  1. Biliary, flatulent, or neurogenic colic of abdomen
  2. Gall stone
  3. Intestinal allergic or inflammatory affections with diarrhea, dysentery, and colic
  4. Hypercholesterolemia or dyslipidemia and related manifestations, including atherosclerotic affections of heart and vascular system, peripheral vascular affection such as claudication
  5. Complaints or manifestations related to DHEA and estrogen hormonal irregularities including sexual erotism or impotency with spermatorrhea
  6. Oestrogen effects on venous system such as constipation with hemorrhoids, varicocele
  7. Urethral stricture
  8. Neuralgia
  9. Diabetes
  10. Cancer - Colon tumors (adenoma-adenocarcinoma); breast adenocarcinoma (HER2 oncoprotein-overexpressing AU565 human {also in MCF-7 and MDA-231}); hepatocellular cancer; gastric cancer; prostate cancer; and in osteosarcoma.[27],[28],[29],[30],[31],[32],[33],[34],[35]

Co-existence of manifestations derived from or associated with pathological essence of Dioscorea such as altered cholesterol metabolism, irregular hormonal (estrogen-DHEA) actions, allergic and inflammatory activities are the basis of homoeopathic approach as logical combination to prescribe Dioscorea. Similarly, characteristic pains or sensations, its extension, modalities, or other characteristic phenomena such as sexual dreams and spermatorrhea as stated by pioneers may represent individualizing features along with these underlying pathologies.

  Conclusion Top

As expression and intensity of disease manifestations differ from one to another, drug pathogenesis revealed from homoeopathic proving and clinical experiments also differ because of individual's constitutional tendencies and susceptibility. However, inspite of these differing manifestations, the target areas and tendencies of the drug are definite. Similarly, drug actions on general or local physiological activities with altered function of internal factor(s) including hormone, enzyme, salt, or other bio-chemicals are also definite. In other words, varying degrees of intensity and differing modalities, sensations, extensions, or other modifications of resulting manifestations are developed from the definite altered physiological activities with affections of different bio-chemicals. These pathophysiological changes with altered function of bio-chemical or other factors are the pathological essence of medicine.

From the present study of Dioscorea, it can be identified that effect of pathological activity of Diosgenin shown in animal as well as in human models has similarity in the internal pathophysiological changes in homoeopathic pathogenesis of D. villosa. External signs and symptoms of these internal changes were expressed fragmentarily with individualistic differences throughout the recorded pathogenesis of this homoeopathic medicine.

Hence, it can be concluded that the underlying altered cholesterol metabolism, irregularity of hormonal (DHEA and estrogen) function, and anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic phenomena with their related manifestations are reflected as the pathological essence of Dioscorea. And in the similar way of producing these pathological changes, Dioscorea has a capability to influence individual's homoeostatic mechanism to maintain the normal state of these altered pathology and related phenomena.

In addition to the pathological complaints related to hypercholesterolemia or dyslipidemia, irregularity of estrogen and DHEA, future evaluation in the sphere of malignancies in colon, breast, hepatic, gastric, prostate, bones as well as for diabetes and intestinal allergic affections are to be considered for more clinical applicability of Dioscorea in homoeopathic practice.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflict of interest

None declared.

  References Top

Anjali K, Kathi JK. Wild Yam (Dioscoreaceae); The Longwood Herbal Task Force. Available from: http://www.mcp.edu/herbal/default.htm. [Last revised 1999 Jun 23].  Back to cited text no. 1
Temel RE, Brown JM, Ma Y, Tang W, Rudel LL, Ioannou YA, et al. Diosgenin stimulation of fecal cholesterol excretion in mice is not NPC1L1 dependent. J Lipid Res 2009;50:915-23.  Back to cited text no. 2
Michelle M. Herbs for the treatment of the symptoms of menopause – A phytotherapist's perspective. Available from: www.mediherb.com/media/pp-no-51. [Last revised 2011 May].  Back to cited text no. 3
Rector-Page LG. Healthy Healing – A Guide to Self-healing for Everyone. 11th ed. United States of America: Traditional Wisdom Inc.; 2000. p. 90.  Back to cited text no. 4
Fuchs NK. The Health Detectives' 456 Most Powerful Healing Secrets: Easy Read edi. Accessible Publishing System PTY Ltd – ReadHowYouWant. Aus. 2008. p. 241.  Back to cited text no. 5
Elkins R. DHEA. Pleasant Grove, Utah: Woodland Publishing; 1996. p. 6.  Back to cited text no. 6
Juarez-Oropeza MA, Diaz-Zagoya JC, Rabinowitz JL.In vivo and in vitro studies of hypocholesterolemic effects of diosgenin in rats. Int J Biochem 1987;19:679-83.  Back to cited text no. 7
Nervi F, Bronfman M, Allalón W, Depiereux E, Del Pozo R. Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion in the rat. Role of hepatic cholesterol esterification. J Clin Invest 1984;74:2226-37.  Back to cited text no. 8
Cayen MN, Dvornik D. Effect of diosgenin on lipid metabolism in rats. J Lipid Res 1979;20:162-74.  Back to cited text no. 9
Nervi F, Marinovic I, Rigotti A, Ulloa N. Regulation of biliary cholesterol secretion. Functional relationship between the canalicular and sinusoidal cholesterol secretory pathways in the rat. J Clin Invest 1988;82:1818-25.  Back to cited text no. 10
Uchida K, Takase H, Nomura Y, Takeda K, Takeuchi N, Ishikawa Y. Changes in biliary and fecal bile acids in mice after treatments with diosgenin and beta-sitosterol. J Lipid Res 1984;25:236-45.  Back to cited text no. 11
Malinow MR, Elliott WH, McLaughlin P, Upson B. Effects of synthetic glycosides on steroid balance in Macaca fascicularis. J Lipid Res 1987;28:1-9.  Back to cited text no. 12
Cayen MN, Dvornik D. Combined effects of clofibrate and diosgenin on cholesterol metabolism in rats. Atherosclerosis 1978;29:317-27.  Back to cited text no. 13
Accatino L, Pizarro M, Solís N, Koenig CS. Effects of diosgenin, a plant-derived steroid, on bile secretion and hepatocellular cholestasis induced by estrogens in the rat. Hepatology 1998;28:129-40.  Back to cited text no. 14
Araghiniknam M, Chung S, Nelson-White T, Eskelson C, Watson RR. Antioxidant activity of dioscorea and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in older humans. Life Sci 1996;59:PL147-57.  Back to cited text no. 15
Park HJ, Byeon HE, Koo HJ, Pyo S. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of diosgenin in ApoE-deficient mice. FASEB J 2011; 25:980.2  Back to cited text no. 16
Aradhana, Rao AR, Kale RK. Diosgenin – A growth stimulator of mammary gland of ovariectomized mouse. Indian J Exp Biol 1992;30:367-70.  Back to cited text no. 17
Sato K, Fujita S, Iemitsu M. Diosgenin administration improve hyperglycemia through the activation of muscular glucose metabolism. FASEB J 2013;27:1154.26.  Back to cited text no. 18
Yamada T, Hoshino M, Hayakawa T, Ohhara H, Yamada H, Nakazawa T, et al. Dietary diosgenin attenuates subacute intestinal inflammation associated with indomethacin in rats. Am J Physiol 1997;273:G355-64.  Back to cited text no. 19
Jung DH, Park HJ, Byun HE, Park YM, Kim TW, Kim BO, et al. Diosgenin inhibits macrophage-derived inflammatory mediators through downregulation of CK2, JNK, NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation. Int Immunopharmacol 2010;10:1047-54.  Back to cited text no. 20
Huang CH, Liu DZ, Jan TR. Diosgenin, a plant-derived sapogenin, enhances regulatory T-cell immunity in the intestine of mice with food allergy. J Nat Prod 2010;73:1033-7.  Back to cited text no. 21
Huang CH, Ku CY, Jan TR. Diosgenin attenuates allergen-induced intestinal inflammation and IgE production in a murine model of food allergy. Planta Med 2009;75:1300-5.  Back to cited text no. 22
Singh M, Hamid AA, Maurya AK, Prakash O, Khan F, Kumar A, et al. Synthesis of diosgenin analogues as potential anti-inflammatory agents. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2014;143:323-33.  Back to cited text no. 23
Hirai S, Uemura T, Mizoguchi N, Lee JY, Taketani K, Nakano Y, et al. Diosgenin attenuates inflammatory changes in the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages. Mol Nutr Food Res 2010;54:797-804.  Back to cited text no. 24
McAnuff MA, Omoruyi FO, Morrison EY, Asemota HN. Changes in some liver enzymes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats fed sapogenin extract from bitter yam (Dioscorea polygonoides) or commercial diosgenin. West Indian Med J 2005;54:97-101.  Back to cited text no. 25
Ghosh S, More P, Derle A, Patil AB, Markad P, Asok A, et al. Diosgenin from Dioscorea bulbifera: Novel hit for treatment of type II diabetes mellitus with inhibitory activity against a-amylase and a-glucosidase. PLoS One 2014;9:e106039.  Back to cited text no. 26
Miyoshi N, Nagasawa T, Mabuchi R, Yasui Y, Wakabayashi K, Tanaka T, et al. Chemoprevention of azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate-induced mouse colon carcinogenesis by freeze-dried yam sanyaku and its constituent diosgenin. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2011;4:924-34.  Back to cited text no. 27
Raju J, Bird RP. Diosgenin, a naturally occurring steroid [corrected] saponin suppresses 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase expression and induces apoptosis in HCT-116 human colon carcinoma cells. Cancer Lett 2007;255:194-204.  Back to cited text no. 28
Chiang CT, Way TD, Tsai SJ, Lin JK. Diosgenin, a naturally occurring steroid, suppresses fatty acid synthase expression in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells through modulating Akt, mTOR and JNK phosphorylation. FEBS Lett 2007;581:5735-42.  Back to cited text no. 29
Srinivasan S, Koduru S, Kumar R, Venguswamy G, Kyprianou N, Damodaran C. Diosgenin targets Akt-mediated prosurvival signaling in human breast cancer cells. Int J Cancer 2009;125:961-7.  Back to cited text no. 30
Li F, Fernandez PP, Rajendran P, Hui KM, Sethi G. Diosgenin, a steroidal saponin, inhibits STAT3 signaling pathway leading to suppression of proliferation and chemosensitization of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Cancer Lett 2010;292:197-207.  Back to cited text no. 31
Li Y, Wang X, Cheng S, Du J, Deng Z, Zhang Y, et al. Diosgenin induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Oncol Rep 2015;33:693-8.  Back to cited text no. 32
Mao ZJ, Tang QJ, Zhang CA, Qin ZF, Pang B, Wei PK, et al. Anti-proliferation and anti-invasion effects of diosgenin on gastric cancer BGC-823 cells with HIF-1a shRNAs. Int J Mol Sci 2012;13:6521-33.  Back to cited text no. 33
Chen PS, Shih YW, Huang HC, Cheng HW. Diosgenin, a steroidal saponin, inhibits migration and invasion of human prostate cancer PC-3 cells by reducing matrix metalloproteinases expression. PLoS One 2011;6:e20164.  Back to cited text no. 34
Moalic S, Liagre B, Corbière C, Bianchi A, Dauça M, Bordji K, et al. A plant steroid, diosgenin, induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and COX activity in osteosarcoma cells. FEBS Lett 2001;506:225-30.  Back to cited text no. 35
Hering C. The Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica. Vol. 5. New Delhi: B. Jain Pub. Pvt. Ltd.; 2000. p. 125-42.  Back to cited text no. 36
Allen TF. A Hand Book of Materia Medica and Homoeopathic Therapeutics. Kolkata: New Central Book Agency Pvt. Ltd.; 2007. p. 459.  Back to cited text no. 37
William HB. Physiological Materia Medica. New Delhi: B. Jain Pub. (P) Ltd.; 2000. p. 382-3.  Back to cited text no. 38
Chitkara HL. Best of Burnett. New Delhi: B. Jain Pub. (P) Ltd.; 2010. p. 182.  Back to cited text no. 39
Samuel L. Homoeopathic Therapeutics. New Delhi: B. Jain Pub. Pvt. Ltd.; 1996. p. 199.  Back to cited text no. 40
Verma PN, Indu V. Encyclopaedia of Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia and Drug Index. Vol. II. 4th ed., New Delhi: B. Jain Pub. (P) Ltd.; 2007. p. 986.  Back to cited text no. 41
Hale EM. Dioscorea – Its Action on Genital Organs; Hahnemannian Monthly. 1868-69. p. 306. Available from: http://www.homeopathyworldcommunity.com. [Posted on 2010 Oct 4]  Back to cited text no. 42
Charles H. Abdominal Pain; Department of Family Medicine – OSU College of Osteopathic Medicine. Available from: docplayer. Charles H. Abdominal Pain; Department of Family Medicine – OSU College of Osteopathic Medicine. Available from: docplayer.net/11013584-Abdominal-pain-charles-henley-do-mph-department-of-fam.[Last revised on 2002 Sep].  Back to cited text no. 43
Dominguez-Muñoz JE, Malfertheiner P, Ditschuneit HH, Blanco-Chavez J, Uhl W, Büchler M, et al. Hyperlipidemia in acute pancreatitis. Relationship with etiology, onset, and severity of the disease. Int J Pancreatol 1991;10:261-7.  Back to cited text no. 44
Yadav D, Pitchumoni CS. Issues in hyperlipidemic pancreatitis. J Clin Gastroenterol 2003;36:54-62.  Back to cited text no. 45
Rodríguez Santana Y, Nimo Román A, García Sáez I, López Alvarez JM, Consuegra Llapur E, González Jorge R. Treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia with continuous insulin infusion. Case Rep Crit Care 2011;2011:293917.  Back to cited text no. 46
Leino-Arjas P, Kauppila L, Kaila-Kangas L, Shiri R, Heistaro S, Heliövaara M. Serum lipids in relation to sciatica among Finns. Atherosclerosis 2008;197:43-9.  Back to cited text no. 47
Song Wu, Xu Cao, Rongzhen He, Kun Xiong. Detrimental impact of hyperlipidemia on the peripheral nervous system - A novel target of medical epidemiological and fundamental research study; Neural Regen Res 2012.  Back to cited text no. 48
Finkelstein JS, Lee H, Burnett-Bowie SA, Pallais JC, Yu EW, Borges LF, et al. Gonadal steroids and body composition, strength, and sexual function in men. N Engl J Med 2013;369:1011-22.  Back to cited text no. 49
Richter ON, Kübler K, Schmolling J, Kupka M, Reinsberg J, Ulrich U, et al. Oxytocin receptor gene expression of estrogen-stimulated human myometrium in extracorporeally perfused non-pregnant uteri. Mol Hum Reprod2004;10(5):339-46  Back to cited text no. 50
Oh JE, Kim YW, Park SY, Kim JY. Estrogen rather than progesterone cause constipation in both female and male mice. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2013;17:423-6.  Back to cited text no. 51
Serra R, Gallelli L, Perri P, De Francesco EM, Rigiracciolo DC, Mastroroberto P, et al. Estrogen receptors and chronic venous disease. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2016;52:114-8.  Back to cited text no. 52
Yokoyama M, Fukutani K, Kawamura T, Shoji F, Ohtani M. Stricture of the anterior urethra following estrogen therapy in patients with prostatic cancer. Urol Int 1983;38:247-50.  Back to cited text no. 53
Lim HY, Rutkowski JM, Helft J, Reddy ST, Swartz MA, Randolph GJ, et al. Hypercholesterolemic mice exhibit lymphatic vessel dysfunction and degeneration. Am J Pathol 2009;175:1328-37.  Back to cited text no. 54

This article has been cited by
1 Efficacy of Dioscorea villosa 6CH in treatment of dyslipidemia: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial
KisorKumar Naskar,Ompriya Mishra,Abhijit Chattopadhyay,Ashutosha Kumar,Aniruddha Banerjee,Laijun Nahar,Seeta Singh,Ritika Asthana,Jasleen Luthra,MohammadAbdul Karim,TirthankarK Swaif Banerjee,SK Swaif Ali,Anamika Basu,Munmun Koley,Subhranil Saha
Journal of Pharmaceutical Negative Results. 2020; 11(1): 59
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

  In this article
  Action of Diosgenin
   Homoeopathic Pat...
   Associating Homo...
   Prescribing Area...

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded876    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal