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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Significant enhancement of dielectric and conducting properties of electroactive polymer polyvinylidene fluoride films: An innovative use of Ferrum metallicum at different concentrations
BK Paul, S Kar, P Bandyopadhyay, R Basu, S Das, DS Bhar, Raj K Manchanda, Anil Khurana, D Nayak, Papiya Nandy
January-March 2016, 10(1):52-58
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.179154  
Background: There are experimental evidences of nanoparticle aspect of homoeopathic medicine. It has also been established that the size of these nanoparticles (NPs) decrease with increase in potency. Aim: We have used this aspect of homoeopathic medicines in some technical applications. Here, to improve the electrical properties of an electroactive polymer, poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexa-fluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP), we have incorporated in the polymer film, a very novel and unique probe Ferrum metallicum (FeM), a homoeopathic medicine, the size of which can be changed by dilution, followed by controlled agitation. Settings and Design: The composite film was synthesized by solution-casting technique. Using standard procedures, the characterization studies by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscope, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed to check the incorporation of the NPs in the film. Material and Method: Each sample was freshly prepared 2 times by doping FeM in PVDF-HFP matrix using solution-casting technique, and the experiment was repeated with each sample for 5 times. Statistical Analysis: This being a continuous data recording, error bars cannot be shown. We have presented the graphs which have been repeated maximum number of times. Result and Conclusion: Our result shows that the electrical properties such as dielectric constant, tangent loss, and electrical conductivity of these polymer films get significantly modified due to incorporation of this homoeopathic nanomedicine and the effect increases with the increase in concentration of the probe up to a critical value. These FeM-incorporated PVDF-HFP films will have potential applications as high-energy storage devices such as multilayered high-charge storage device.
  6 2,097 314
DEBATE
Scientific method of preparing homoeopathic nosodes
Rajesh Shah
July-September 2014, 8(3):166-174
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.141740  
Introduction: Nosodes are homoeopathic preparations sourced from biological materials such as diseased tissues, organisms, cultures (bacteria, fungi, and viruses), or parasites, or from decomposed products from humans or animals. More than forty-five major nosodes have been in use since 1830 but no clear guidelines regarding their preparation are available. Objective : To standardize the method of preparation of nosodes using modern technology and lay down clear guidelines for the same. Materials and Methods : Biological material identification such as culture of organism, separation of required pure fraction, quantification, standardization, dilutions, potentisation method, and safe use of nosodes were documented in a systematic way . Result: HIV, HCV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis nosodes were prepared using the modified method described in this article. Conclusion: The improved method of nosode preparation can pave way for laying clear guidelines for preparation of nosodes in homoeopathic pharmacopeias.
  5 14,556 1,159
REVIEW ARTICLE
A review of Basic Research on Homoeopathy from a physicist's point of view
Papiya Nandy
July-September 2015, 9(3):141-151
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.166372  
Homoeopathic medicine has been one of the world's most widely practiced alternative therapies. However, that the potency of a homoeopathic medicine increases with dilution followed by succussion (together termed as potentization) has thrown challenges to the scientific community at large. A recent hypothesis, advanced by us and others, is that due to the process of potentization, the size of the constituent particles decreases and eventually reaches nanodimension. This decrease in size with increase in potency has been verified by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering studies. The increase in potency is manifested in its increased effect on membrane fluidity. The change in potency also leaves its signature on Ultraviolet-Visible spectra, Fourier transform infrared radiation spectra and Raman spectra. We have taken one step further to carry this nano-dimensional property of homoeopathic medicine and put it into several technical applications. And in so doing, we have connected the important, old, un-quantifiable effects with the latest quantifiable technology and opened up an era of applications with more possibilities.
  5 7,663 1,003
CLINICAL PAPERS
Usefulness of classical homoeopathy for the prevention of urinary tract infections in patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction: A case series
Jürgen Pannek, Susanne Pannek-Rademacher, Martine Cachin Jus, Mohinder Singh Jus
January-March 2014, 8(1):31-36
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.129675  
Context: In patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), recurrent Urinary Tract Infections (UTI), is a frequently encountered clinical problem. Often, conventional preventive measures are not successful. Aims: To treat the patients of SCI suffering from recurrent UTI with classical homoeopathy as add-on to standard urologic care. Materials and Methods: After exclusion of morphological abnormalities and initiation of a standard regime for prophylaxis, all patients with a neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction due to SCI, with more than three symptomatic UTI/year, were offered additional homoeopathic care. Symptoms were fever, incontinence, increased spasticity, decreased bladder capacity or pain/decreased general health combined with significant bacteriuria. Descriptive statistics was used for analysis. Results: Eight patients were followed up for a median period of 15 months. Five patients remained free of UTI, whereas UTI frequency was reduced in three patients. Conclusion: Our initial experience with homoeopathic prevention of UTI as add on to standard urologic prophylactic measures is encouraging. For an evidence-based evaluation of this concept, prospective studies are required. Keys for the positive outcome of this case series are co-operation of well-qualified partners, mutual respect and the motivation to co-operate closely.
  4 7,587 733
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Analysis of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some homoeopathic mother tinctures
Saeed Ahmad, Tayyeba Rehman, Waheed Mumtaz Abbasi, Muhammad Mohsin Zaman
January-March 2017, 11(1):21-25
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.200843  
Background: Antioxidant compounds are widely used in health protection. Homoeopathic mother tinctures are commonly prescribed for prevention and cure of many illnesses. Objective: The present study focused to determine the antioxidant potential of six commonly prescribed mother tinctures. i.e. Syzygium jambolanum, Damiana, Cinchona officinalis, Chelidonium majus, Convallaria majalis, Coca. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity was estimated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition assay. A volume of 0.1 mM solution of DPPH was used while mother tinctures (5, 2.5, and 1.25 μl volumes) were used for estimating antioxidant activity. Quercetin was taken as a standard control in antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was measured by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent assay. Total phenolic content of mother tinctures was measured in comparison to gallic acid. Results: Results of the study showed the significant antioxidant activity and high total phenolic content of all tested mother tinctures in the following order: Syzygium jambolanum, Damiana, Cinchona officinalis, Chelidonium majus, Convallaria majalis, Coca. Conclusion: Antioxidant potential of mother tinctures is related to total phenolic content present in them, and their role in prevention and cure of diseases may link through their antioxidant activity. Among six selected mother tinctures, S. jambolanum has highest antioxidant potential.
  4 3,292 525
Homoeopathic management in depressive episodes: A prospective, unicentric, non-comparative, open-label observational study
Praveen Oberai, Indira Balachandran, KR Janardhanan Nair, Anita Sharma, VP Singh, Vikram Singh, Chaturbhuja Nayak
July-September 2013, 7(3):116-125
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.119117  
Objective: To evaluate the role of homoeopathic medicines in the management of depressive episodes. Material and Methods: A prospective, non-comparative, open-label observational study was carried out from October 2005 to September 2010, by the Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH) (India), at - the Central Research Institute CRI (H), Kottayam. Patients who were 20-60 years of age, suffering from mood disorders were screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria. Homoeopathic medicines were prescribed in 30, 200 and 1M potencies, after repertorising the symptoms and signs and final consultation with the Materia Medica. The internationally accepted scales - Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Clinical Global Impression (CGI) - were used to assess the symptoms at each visit and measure the outcome. The follow up of 12 months included six months of observation period. Analysis was done as per the intention-to-treat (ITT) principle using SPSS version 20. Results: Eighty-three patients (35 males and 48 females), who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Out of these, 67 patients completed the follow-up, 16 patients did not attend the Outpatient Department (OPD) for varying periods. The ITT principle was applied for the analysis considering their last observations. A statistically significant (P = 0.0001, P < 0.05) difference in the mean scores of HDRS, using the paired t-test, was observed. The mean scores at baseline and at end were 17.98 ± 4.9 and 5.8 ± 5.9, respectively. Statistically significant differences were also observed in the BDI and CGI scales. The most frequently used medicines were: Natrum muriaticum (n = 18), Arsenicum album (n = 12), Pulsatilla nigricans (n = 11), Lycopodium clavatum (n = 7) and Phosphorus (n = 6). Conclusion: A course of six months of homoeopathic treatment is associated with significant benefits in patients suffering from depressive episodes, as measured by HDRS. Further controlled studies are needed to assess the efficacy .
  4 5,228 756
Effectiveness of homoeopathic therapeutics in the management of childhood autism disorder
Praful M Barvalia, Piyush M Oza, Amit H Daftary, Vijaya S Patil, Vinita S Agarwal, Ashish R Mehta
July-September 2014, 8(3):147-159
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.141738  
Background and Objectives: Childhood autism is severe and a serious disorder. A study was conducted by Spandan holistic institute of applied Homoeopathy, Mumbai, with the objective of demonstrating the usefulness of homeopathic management in autism. Materials and Methods: Sixty autistic children of both sexes, ≤12 years were selected for this study. It was nonrandomized, self-controlled, pre and post-intervention study, wherein the initial 6 months of observation period was used as the control period and the same patients were thereafter treated for 1 year and compared with post-intervention findings. Results: The study demonstrated significant improvement of autistic features with mean change in ATEC score (ATEC 1 -pre-treatment with ATEC 5 -post-treatment) was 15.12 and ATEC mean percent change was 19.03. Statistically significant changes in ATEC scores were observed in all the quarters analyzed through repeated measures ANOVA, with F-value 135.952, P = 0.0001. An impact was observed on all core autistic features, which included communication, 12.61%, socialization, 17%, sensory awareness, 18.82%, and health and behavior, 29% (P = 0.0001). Significant improvement was observed in behavior by Autistic Hyperactivity Scale, AHS 1 36 to AHS 5 14.30 with F-value 210.599 (P = 0.0001). Outcome assessment was carried out using MANOVA, which showed statistically significant changes in post-treatment scores, P < 0.005. Total 88.34% cases showed improvement, 8.33% showed status quo, and 3.33% cases worsened. Nine out of 60 cases showed a reversal of CARS putting them into non-autistic zone, P = 0.0001. A sharp decrease (34%) in ATEC scores, in the first quarter implied positive effect of homoeopathic medicines, prescribed, as per the homoeopathic principles. Conclusion: The study has demonstrated usefulness of homoeopathic treatment in management of neuropsychological dysfunction in childhood autism disorder, which is reflected in significant reduction of hyperactivity, behavioral dysfunction, sensory impairment as well as communication difficulty. This was demonstrated well in psychosocial adaptation of autistic children.
  3 40,372 7,466
Comparative analysis of antibacterial activity of povidone iodine and homoeopathic mother tinctures as antiseptics
Muhammad Mohsin Zaman, Muhammad Aslam Shaad, Saeed Ahmad, Waheed Mumtaz Abbasi, Tayyeba Rehman
January-March 2016, 10(1):36-41
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.179151  
Objectives: Antiseptics are used extensively in hospitals and other health care centers (clinics) to control the growth of microbes on living tissues. They are essential parts of infection control practices, especially in wound treatment and aid in the prevention of nosocomial infections. This study was done to evaluate and compare the antibacterial effectiveness of povidone iodine and eight commonly used homoeopathic mother tinctures. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Faculty of Pharmacy and alternative Medicine, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur. All the selected Homeopathic mother tinctures were purchased by Masood Homeopathic Pharmaceuticals, Pakistan. Prepared PYODINEâ (povidone iodine) solution 10% w/v, batch no. 084F4 used as positive control while 70% ethanol was used as negative control in each test. These tinctures were tested against three clinically important human skin-pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by disc diffusion method with povidone iodine as positive standard. Results: Seven out of eight mother tinctures showed more or less antibacterial activity; some of them have high activity than povidone iodine. Rhus glabra had maximum activity (zone of inhibition 32 mm) against Streptococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa than povidone iodine and among all the tested mother tinctures. Conclusion: This study confirms the antibacterial activity and more effectiveness of Thuja occidentalis and Rhus glabra mother tinctures than povidone iodine. The other tested mother tinctures also have antibacterial activity against tested bacteria, except Echinacea.
  3 4,099 694
CASE REPORT
Therapeutic effect of Mercurius solubilis on immune status of a borderline leprosy case
Dhruba Chakraborty, Amit Kumar Dinda, Utpal Sengupta, Pradeep Das, Tuhin Chakraborty, Jogneshwar Sengupta
April-June 2014, 8(2):100-106
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.135643  
A Borderline Lepromatous (BL) leprosy case was treated with Mercurius solubilis, a homoeopathic medicine for two years. The clinical, immunological and histological assessment of the patient before and after treatment was recorded. The patient showed appreciable improvement in clinical signs and symptoms. Lesions on the skin almost disappeared; no swelling of hand and feet was noted along with disappearance of infiltration on eye brows. Nodular lesions on both the ear lobes diminished remarkably. Regain of sensation to touch, pain and pressure were noted and their test responses were normal. Slit skin smears were negative from all sites with 0 Bacteriological Index [BI] which was positive for acid fast bacilli [AFB] with an average of 4+ BI before treatment. Histologic study revealed absence of granuloma in dermis except the presence of occasional clusters of lymphocytes. Lepromin reaction which was negative before treatment was positive with 14 mm after 2 years of treatment. Estimation of different cytokines after completion of treatment showed appreciable changes with remarkable reduction in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IFN and TNF).
  2 3,106 404
Gangrene: Five case studies of gangrene, preventing amputation through Homoeopathic therapy
Seema Mahesh, Mahesh Mallappa, George Vithoulkas
April-June 2015, 9(2):114-122
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.159544  
Gangrene and its associated amputations are clinically challenging, but Homoeopathy offers therapy options. In this case series, 5 cases are presented, in which the homoeopathic treatment prevented amputation of a body part. Homoeopathy stimulates the body's ability to heal through its immune mechanisms; consequently, it achieves wound healing and establishes circulation to the gangrenous part. Instead of focusing on the local phenomena of gangrene pathology, treatment focuses on the general indications of the immune system, stressing the important role of the immune system as a whole. The aim was to show, through case reports, that homoeopathic therapy can treat gangrene without amputing the gangrenous part, and hence has a strong substitution for consideration in treating gangrene.
  2 42,856 2,108
EDITORIAL
Dengue epidemic: What can we offer?
Raj K Manchanda
July-September 2015, 9(3):137-140
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.166371  
  2 24,868 1,139
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Evaluation of safety profile of homoeopathic mother tinctures
Surender Singh, Rohit Kumar, Ritu Karwasra, Prerna Kalra, Shalu Rani, Debadatta Nayak, YK Gupta
April-June 2014, 8(2):81-86
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.135640  
Background: Mother tinctures are commonly prescribed in day to day practice as therapeutic agents by homoeopathic practitioners. However, being the base preparation of medicines, safety of mother tinctures still remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components involved.The present study investigated the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of different homoeopathic mother tinctures (Bellis perennis, Curcuma longa, Rauwolfia serpentina, Ricinnus communis, Tribulus terrestris and Terminalia arjuna) in experimental models. Methods: Toxicity studies were conducted to assess the level to which substances are toxic for humans and animals. In acute oral toxicity study, different homoeopathic mother tinctures were administered orally (a single dose of 4 ml/kg)and animals were observed for toxic symptoms till 14 days as per OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) - 423 guidelines. For sub-acute toxicity study, 28 day oral toxicity of mother tinctures (4 ml/kg daily) was carried out according to the OECD guidelines for testing of chemicals - 407. At the end of 28 days, the animals were sacrificed and toxicity was assessed on parameters such as blood, biochemistry and histopathology. Results: Results indicate that there were no toxic symptoms observed in tested animals. Results of sub-acute toxicity study did not show any change in body weight, haematological and biochemical parameters as compared to control. The histopathological examination of kidney and liver also did not reveal any organ toxicities.
  2 8,770 918
Leaching of plastic polymers by plastic vials used for storing homoeopathic medicines: A preliminary study
Neeraj Gupta, RK Saxena, B Sharma, S Sharma, AK Agrawal, M Jassal, Raj K Manchanda
April-June 2014, 8(2):95-99
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.135642  
Background: In Homoeopathy, plastic containers/vials are used for the storing/dispensing of ethanol-based medicines instead of glass. Various studies have suggested that plastic components that leach out in stored substances tend to cause contamination and may produce adverse effects in living systems. The present study was aimed to find out chemical composition and leaching behaviour of commonly used plastic vials (PVs) if any during the storage of ethanol-based homoeopathic medicines in optimal environment. Material and Methods: The experiments were conducted on two sample sets of PVs. Chemical properties of PV were assessed by Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy. PV were cut separately [sample-1 (S-1) and sample-2 (S-2)] and immersed in Homoeopathic Grade Ethanol (HGE) in conical flask and stored for 7 days at ambient temperature (25° ± 5C) with constant rotary shaking. After 7 days, S-1 and S-2 of PV in Homoeopathic Grade Ethanol (HGE) were decanted and filtered. Aliquots (A1 and A2) were analysed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H 1 NMR). The spectral graph obtained by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy for PV compositions and spectral graph obtained by H 1 NMR spectroscopy for PV ethanol aliquots were examined for PVs material and PV leaching effect in HGE. Results: FTIR-ATR spectra showed that PV are made up of two types of polyolefin's compounds i.e. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE). Aliquots of PV in HGE showed the presence benzophenone and its methyl derivative, heat and light stabiliser (2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine and amino derivative), antioxidant (4, 4'- thiobis and 2-tertbutyl-5-methylphenol) and plasticizer bis 2-Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) or Dioctyl phthalate (DOP). Results of study suggest that PVs leach out plastic polymers in HGE. Conclusion: This preliminary experiment suggests that it is not safe to use LDPE/LLDPE plastic for storing/dispensing ethanol based homoeopathic medicines. Further study with other grades of plastic is desirable.
  2 4,042 552
A multi-centric double-blind randomized homoeopathic pathogenetic trial of Gymnema sylvestre
Goutam Rakshit, JP Singh, SD Pathak, Ch Kishan Banoth, PK Chandra, Rajpal , Sujata Kumari Choudhury, Vinay Kr Singh
January-March 2013, 7(1):9-21
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.114270  
Objective: To elicit the pathogenetic response of Gymnema sylvestre in homoeopathic potencies on apparently healthy human volunteers. Methodology: Gymnema sylvestre was proved by the Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy through double-blind placebo-controlled method. The study was carried out at four centers. The drug was proved in two potencies (6C and 30C) on 63 apparently healthy volunteers who were selected after conducting pre-trial medical examination by the medical specialists and routine laboratory investigations. In the first phase volunteers were given 56 doses (04 doses per day for 14 days) of placebo. In the next two phases 56 doses (04 doses per day for 14 days) of each potency or placebo were consumed. The symptoms generated during the trial period were noted by the volunteers and elaborated by the proving masters. The data obtained from all the four centers was compiled at proving-cum-data processing cell at CCRH headquarters after decoding. Results: Out of 37 provers who were on actual drug trial, 16 manifested symptoms. The drug was able to produce symptoms in each potency in most of the parts of the body. Conclusion: The pathogenetic responses elicited during the drug proving trial expand the scope of use of the drug Gymnema sylvestre and will benefit the research scholars and clinicians. The generated symptoms of the drug will carry more meaning when verified clinically.
  2 8,221 772
Role of homoeopathic mother tinctures in rheumatoid arthritis: An experimental study
Surender Singh, Ritu Karwasra, Prerna Kalra, Rohit Kumar, Shalu Rani, Debadatta Nayak, YK Gupta
January-March 2015, 9(1):42-48
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.154348  
Objectives: The objective of present preliminary study was to assess the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-arthritic effect of some homoeopathic mother tinctures viz. Ricinus communis (RCMT), Rauwolfia serpentina (RSMT), Bellis perennis (BPMT), Curcuma longa (CLMT), Terminalia arjuna (TAMT) and Tribulus terresteris (TTMT). Materials and Methods: Paw oedema was induced by administration of 0.1ml 1% carrageenan in normal saline into right hind paw. Degree of inflammation was evaluated according to paw swelling. Arthritis was induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) injection in metatarsal footpad of Wistar albino rats. Result: Curcuma longa and Tribulus terresteris mother tinctures reduced hind paw swelling decreased the paw volume in Carrageenan treated rats. Thus, revealed potent activity against inflammation. All homoeopathic mother tinctures showed peripheral analgesic activities in hot plate induced thermal algesia in mice.
  2 23,181 1,410
Protective effect of Zincum metallicum on rat model of Parkinson's disease
Andleeb Khan, Gulrana Khuwaja, Farah Islam, Hayat Javed, Tauheed Ishrat, Kumar Vaibhav, Badaruzaman Khan, Rizwana Tabassum, Minakshi Das, Md Ejaz Ahmed, Fakhrul Islam
April-June 2015, 9(2):86-95
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.159528  
Background: Parkinson's Disease (PD) is one of the major neurodegenerative disorders, and oxidative stress has been implicated in playing an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Zincum metallicum, produces symptoms mentioned in Homoeopathic Materia Medica which are akin to PD on which basis it might be considered as one at the intermediate to treat the disease. Materials and Methods: Rats were divided into eight groups; surgery was done by stereotaxic apparatus. 6 - hydroxydopamine was used to induce parkinsonism thereafter on 16 th day of lesioning animals were assessed by the video path analyzer. Animals were sacrificed and biochemical assays (Lipid peroxidation [LPO], glutathione [GSH], glutathione peroxide [GPx], glutathione reductase [GR], glutathione-S-transferase [GST]) and level of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA), were estimated. Further dopaminergic D 2 receptor binding was also done to confirm the induced parkinsonism. Results: The behavior activities (locomotor, distance travel, stereroevent) were decreased whereas the rest time was increased in lesion group animals as compared to the sham group. The locomotor activity and the distance traveled were protected significantly with 6C whereas rest time was protected significantly with 30C and 200C of Homoeopathic medicine Zincum metallicum. On the other hand, S + 30C and S + 200C groups have shown increased locomotor activities as compared to S group. The rest time was also increased significantly in S + 6C and S + 30C group animals as compared to S group. The elevated level of LPO and DA D 2 receptor binding density in PD group was protected significantly with Zincum metallicum (6C, 30C, and 200C). The depleted level of GSH and activity of antioxidant enzymes (GPx, GR, and GST) and DA and its metabolites DOPAC and HVA were protected significantly with Zincum metallicum (6C, 30C, and 200C). Conclusion: The study indicates the Zincum metallicum may be helpful in slowing down injury in parkinsonism and could be a beneficial drug for the prevention of PD.
  2 5,526 530
To evaluate the role of homoeopathic medicines as add-on therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis on NSAIDs: A retrospective study
Tapas K Kundu, Afroz F Shaikh, Sindhu M Jacob
January-March 2014, 8(1):24-30
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.129674  
Background: Conventional management of Rhematiod Arthritis (RA) includes administration of Non- Steroidal Anti- Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) like Methotrixate and anti-tumor necrosis factor α monoclonal antibody (anti-TNFά). Gastric ulcers, bleeding and perforation are the most common known adverse reactions found associated with excessive consumption of NSAIDs. The homoeopathic system of medicine improves the general well being, that is, Quality of Life (QoL) in addition to reducing the pain and disability. Objective: To evaluate the patients with RA receiving homoeopathic medicines with respect to QoL, Disease Activity Score (DAS), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR), morning stiffness/pain and frequency of analgesics after homoeopathic intervention. Design: This is a retrospective analysis of the role of homoeopathic medicines in RA. Patients diagnosed as sero-positive for RA antigen receiving homeopathic medicines were analysed for DAS, QoL, frequency of analgesics, ESR and pain/morning stiffness. Materials and Methods: Ten cases testing sero-positive for RA with at least four clinical signs were evaluated from single homoeopathic Out-Patient Department (OPD) from February 2009 and February 2011. Cases were analysed to find out the role of homoeopathic constitutional similimum in people with RA. Changes in DAS, ESR, pain/morning stiffness and QoL were considered as outcome measure. Results: Homoeopathic constitutional medicines were found to reduce the intensity of pain in patients with RA (t = 4.3733, P < 0.01) along with reduction in consumption of NSAIDs (t = 2.4, P < 0.05). The DAS reduced in all 10 patients (t = 2.67, P < 0.01). The QoL was also found to improve under homoeopathic medication (t = 4.044, P < 0.01) and no further deterioration joint/disability was observed in any of the 10 patients. Mean ESR improved to 19.5 from 38.1 (t = 2.235, P < 0.05). Out of 10, 3 (30%) patients were found to be sero-negative after homoeopathic constitutional similimum. Conclusion: Homoeopathic constitutional similimum improves the QoL of patients with RA by reducing intensity of pain, limiting disability and reducing disease activity, thus causing improvement in general and disease condition in particular. It also limits the need of analgesics and DMARDs in RA.
  2 73,339 8,530
RESEARCH PROTOCOL
Homoeopathy in polycystic ovarian syndrome: A randomized placebo-controlled pilot study
Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy
January-March 2014, 8(1):3-8
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.129671  
Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an emerging health problem in young females characterized by ovarian dysfunction and hyperandrogenism. Existing information indicates a positive role of homoeopathy but more rigorous studies are desirable. This protocol has been developed to undertake a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of homoeopathic intervention using established diagnostic criteria. Methods/Design: It will be a multi-centric, randomized, placebo controlled pilot study with a 6-month intervention and follow up period. Minimum 60 cases fulfilling the eligibility criteria will be enrolled and randomized to receive either the homoeopathic intervention or the identical placebo. Both the arms follow lifestyle modification for weight reduction. Primary endpoint will be the establishment of regular menstrual cycle along with improvement in either ultrasonology or hirsutism/acne. Secondary endpoints will be to compare the changes in total and individual domain scores of PCOS questionnaire at monthly interval and the changes in ultrasound of polycystic ovaries. For the primary outcome and each of the secondary outcomes, both per protocol and modified intention to treat analysis will be done. Discussion: This pilot study has been planned considering the varied presentation of PCOS as per international diagnostic criteria and accordingly the composite endpoints have been kept for evaluation. The outcome of this pilot study will help in planning a definite study. Trial registration: CTRI/2013/09/003983 [Registered on: 16/09/2013].
  2 5,423 1,382
REVIEW ARTICLE
The contribution of homeogenomic and homeogenetic studies in the support of the practice of Homoeopathy
Peter H Kay, Anisur R Khuda-Bukhsh
April-June 2016, 10(2):101-107
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.183858  
Almost two decades ago, it was postulated that homoeopathic remedies could deliver their benefits by interacting with the genetic blueprint. Over the years, the results of many homeogenomic gene expression studies have confirmed this postulate. The results of homeogenomic studies have begun to recognize which of the estimated 25,000 human genes are targeted by different homoeopathic remedies and how the expression profiles of these targeted genes are rearranged. From a mechanistic standpoint, seminal homeogenomic studies have shown that homoeopathic remedies can also facilitate epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation. This is an important discovery because DNA methylation plays an important role in the control of the expression of many genes. Understanding of the genes targeted by different homoeopathic remedies, taken together with information about the function of the protein/s encoded by the targeted gene/s provides a further complementary approach to homoeopathic remedy selection. In this review, as an example, we show how the results of homeogenomic studies support the applicability of frequently used homoeopathic remedies in patients suffering from cancer, particularly with respect to upregulation of the gene TP53. This review also outlines how the results of homeogenomic studies may also provide further help with potency selection and optimum dosage regimen.
  2 6,303 596
CONFERENCE REPORT
National Conference of Liga Medicorum Homoeopathica Internationalis (Indian Chapter) 2014 marks new vistas in Homoeopathy research
Suniti Chugh, Ritika Hassija Narula
April-June 2014, 8(2):111-115
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.135647  
India hosted its first National Conference of Liga Medicorum Homoeopathica Internationalis (LMHI) in New Delhi on 24 th -25 th May 2014. "Homoeopathy Success Stories through Basic and Fundamental Research and in Paediatric Disorders" was the premise of the conference. With 37 oral presentations, the conference brought around 350 delegates and eminent speakers from all over the nation to a common platform. The leading speakers deliberated on topics which demonstrated the sound progress being made in the field of Homoeopathy. Researchers, academicians and practitioners got the opportunity to share their experiences, ideas and information through this venture. The present report is a synopsis of the key findings reported during the conference highlighting some of the important researches in the field.
  1 3,155 297
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Clinical trial for evaluation of a Human Immunodeficiency Virus nosode in the treatment for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected individuals
Rajesh Shah
January-March 2015, 9(1):25-33
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.154345  
Introduction: Identifying the need for strengthening of the immune system, the investigator has developed new Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) nosode and evaluated its effect on HIV positive individuals through a clinical trial. Methods: Standardized and the scientific method of HIV nosode preparation has been described and documented. Thirty-seven HIV-infected persons were registered for the trial, and ten participants were dropped out from the study, so the effect of HIV nosode 30C and 50C, was concluded on 27 participants under the trial. Results: Out of 27 participants, 7 (25.93%) showed a sustained reduction in the viral load from 12 to 24 weeks. Similarly 9 participants (33.33%) showed an increase in the CD4+ count by 20% altogether in 12 th and 24 th week. Significant weight gain was observed at week 12 (P = 0.0206). 63% and 55% showed an overall increase in either appetite or weight. The viral load increased from baseline to 24 week through 12 week in which the increase was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). 52% (14 of 27) participants have shown either stability or improvement in CD4% at the end of 24 weeks, of which 37% participants have shown improvement (1.54-48.35%) in CD4+ count and 15% had stable CD4+ percentage count until week 24 week. 16 out of 27 participants had a decrease (1.8-46.43%) in CD8 count. None of the adverse events led to discontinuation of study. Conclusion: The study results revealed improvement in immunological parameters, treatment satisfaction, reported by an increase in weight, relief in symptoms, and an improvement in health status, which opens up possibilities for future studies.
  1 6,849 830
Use of homoeopathic remedies in the management of learning disabilities
Kumar M Dhawale, Madhavi P Tamboli, Mariyam Y Katawala, Namita N Tambitkar, Prashant P Tamboli
April-June 2014, 8(2):87-94
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.135641  
Aims: The objective of the study was to assess the therapeutic usefulness of Homoeopathy in the management of LD, viz., dyslexia and dysgraphia, to ascertain the role of homoeopathic medicines and verify their characteristic symptoms in the management of various types of LD to establish verified characteristic symptoms of medicines used in the management of various types of LD. Settings and Design: A 3-year randomised double blind case control study was carried out on 67 children between ages 8-12 years fulfilling the criteria of LD (ICD-10) for dyslexia and dysgraphia with a minimal observation period of one year. The study was conducted in three Marathi-medium schools in Mumbai. Material and Methods: 67 children between ages 8-12 years fulfilling the criteria of LD (ICD-10) for dyslexia and dysgraphia were studied for a minimal observation period of one year. All received remedial education as it is the standard mode of management. 32 children constituted Group I and were administered the indicated homoeopathic medicine in the 200 th potency in infrequent repetition while 35 children from Group II were given placebo. The children and the Remedial Educators who were the assessors were blinded for the study. Statistical Analysis Used: t-test was done for statistical analysis. Results: The children under homoeopathic treatment with remedial education showed an early response to remedial inputs and a statistically significant change in the indicators of dyslexia and dysgraphia. There was also a significant change in the co-morbid behavioural condition notably Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The study not only helped verify the characteristic symptoms of the remedies from Materia Medica useful in LD but also was able to report clinical symptoms which have not been reported in source books. 53.12% of children needed Calcarea salts. The other significant remedy indicated in 9.3% children was Medorrhinum, Argenticum nitricum, Calc-flour, and Natrum salts were indicated in 6.25% children. Conclusion: Homoeopathic intervention when combined with standard remedial education has a definite role in bringing about an early change in all parameters of LD. It also assists in bringing about a change in treating the co-morbid conditions, commonly Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD/ADHD). The improvements started simultaneously in most of the areas except in speed of reading and reading comprehension, repetition in reading and omission of punctuation in writing.
  1 6,385 761
Anti-candidal activity of homoeopathic drugs: An in-vitro evaluation
Girish Gupta, AK Srivastava, Naveen Gupta, Gaurang Gupta, Sunil Mishra
April-June 2015, 9(2):79-85
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.159522  
Background: Candida albicans is an opportunistic pathogenic fungus accounting for up to 75% of all candidal infections in human beings. Generally Candida grow and survive as commensals but slight modification of the host defense system can transform Candida albicans into a pathogen. Materials and Methods: Samples collected from the oral cavity and tongue of the patients suspected of suffering from oral candidiasis were incubated for growth of Candida. Fermentation and assimilation test confirmed the species as Candida albicans. Disc method was used to assess the in-vitro anti-candidal effect of few homoeopathic drugs in 30 and 200 potencies against human pathogenic Candida albicans under in-vitro conditions and compared with standard antifungal drug ketoconazole (control), rectified spirit (control/vehicle) and distilled water (vehicle) by "inhibition zone technique". Results: Homeopathic drugs namely Acid benzoicum, Apis mellifica, Kali iodatum, Mezereum, Petroleum, Sulphur, Tellurium, Sulphur iodatum, Graphites, Sepia, Silicea and Thuja occidentalis in 30 and 200 potencies were tested against Candida albicans. Mezereum in 200 and 30 potency showed maximum inhibition of growth of Candida albicans followed by Kali iodatum 200 while Kali iodatum 30 and Petroleum 30 had minimum inhibition. Conclusion: The results of these experiments support the concept of "evidence based medicine" depicting that homoeopathic medicines not only work in in-vivo but are equally effective in in-vitro conditions having definite inhibitory activity against Candida albicans.
  1 9,739 706
RESEARCH PROTOCOL
Homoeopathic therapy for lower urinary tract symptoms in men with Benign Prostastic Hyperplasia: An open randomized multicentric placebo controlled clinical trial
Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy
April-June 2014, 8(2):75-80
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.135639  
Background: Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common condition in ageing men, associated with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS). Being a cause of significant morbidity in ageing man, various observational studies were conducted by the Council with a positive outcome. This protocol has been prepared to further ascertain the usefulness of constitutional/organ remedies in LUTS for men with BPH in a randomized control setting. Objectives: The primary objective is to compare the changes in IPSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) within the three groups enrolled for the study (Constitutional remedy/Constitutional + Organ remedy/Placebo). The secondary objectives are to compare the changes in Prostate volume, Post Void Residual Urine (PVRU), Uroflowmetry and in WHOQOL-BREF. Material and Methods: It is an open randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. The prescription of the constitutional remedies/organ remedies/placebo is done as per the randomization chart and the selection of these remedies is done as per the guidelines laid in the Organon of Medicine. The outcome measures including IPSS (monthly), prostate volume, post void residual urine, uroflowmetry and the WHOQOL-BREF are assessed at baseline, three and six months interval. Discussion: Results from this trial will help in constructing treatment strategy for BPH patients with lower urinary tract symptoms in improving their quality of life. Trial Registration: Clinical Trial Registry - India: CTRI/2012/05/002649.
  1 5,162 715
REVIEW ARTICLE
Homoeopathy for the management of Asthma - A review of Council's Clinical Research
Bindu Sharma, Ritika Hassija Narula, Raj K Manchanda
April-June 2015, 9(2):69-78
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.159520  
Objective: To conduct a review of the Clinical Research work of the Council in the field of asthma. Methods: A comprehensive manual search of Council's publications pertaining to asthma was conducted to identify publications on the research work undertaken by the Council including CCRH Quarterly Bulletins (1982 to 2005), Clinical Research studies series and Indian Journal of Research in Homoeopathy (IJRH). Relevant research was categorized by study type and appraised according to study design with their clinical outcomes. Results: Only 20 publications pertaining to Asthma were found and 10 were selected consisting of observational studies and drug oriented studies. Conclusion: The positive outcome in controlling acute episodes of asthma, reducing the frequency and intensity of subsequent episodes and weaning of bronchodilators and other allopathic drugs have been reported. As only observational studies have been conducted, further pragmatic trials including randomized control studies are desirable.
  1 7,013 902
* Source: CrossRef
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