Indian Journal of Research in Homeopathy

ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year
: 2019  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 72--80

Retrospective estimation of prevalence and likelihood ratio of general symptoms of 29 less frequently prescribed homoeopathic medicines by clinical verification


Raj K Manchanda1, Parthasarathi Chakraborty2, Munmun Koley2, Dinesh Singh3, Pramodji Singh4, Ojit Singh5, Varanasi Gayatri Prasad6, Jai Prakash Singh7, Surinder Singh Nain4, Prasant Kumar Pradhan8, Sunil S Ramteke3, Ramesh Bawaskar9, Lipi Pushpa Debata7, Subhranil Saha7, Chaturbhuja Nayak10, Lex Rutten11 
1 Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, New Delhi, India
2 Dr. Anjali Chatterjee Regional Research Institute (Homoeopathy), Kolkata, West Bengal, India
3 Regional Research Institute for Homoeopathy, Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India
4 Central Research Institute (Homoeopathy), Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
5 Regional Research Institute for Homoeopathy, Imphal, Manipur, India
6 Regional Research Institute for Homoeopathy, Gudivada, Andhra Pradesh, India
7 Homoeopathic Drug Research Institute, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
8 Regional Research Institute for Homoeopathy, Puri, Odisha, India
9 Regional Research Institute for Homoeopathy, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
10 Homoeopathy University, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
11 Independent Researcher, VHAN, Dutch Association of Homeopathic Physicians, Breda, The Netherlands

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Parthasarathi Chakraborty
S-4, Dr. Anjali Chatterjee Regional Research Institute (Homoeopathy), Kolkata, West Bengal
India

Context: Scientific assessment of proving symptoms or already recorded symptoms in patients refers to Clinical Verification (CV). There are serious shortcomings of existing methods of CV, mostly arising from qualitative observations made on absolute occurrence of symptoms instead of relative ones. This problem can be resolved by the use of the Likelihood Ratio (LR). Aim: This study aims to estimate the prevalence and LRs of general symptoms of 29 less frequently prescribed homoeopathic medicines. Methods: The study was multicentric, open and observational. Patients were enrolled as per pre-specified eligibility criteria. Alongside, presenting complaints and general symptoms were taken into account during prescription. Medicines were prescribed in centesimal potencies. LR calculation of general symptoms was based on clinician-rated outcomes as 'improved' and 'not improved' of presenting complaints and was divided into three sections: (1) when the prevalence of a symptom was available from literature, LR was calculated by assessing the prevalence of that symptom in the responder sample, (2) in the absence of so, calculation was restricted to mean prevalence data from study sample ('confined LR') and (3) 'confined LRs' were not calculated for symptoms whose prevalence were not recorded for at least five medicines and were kept for estimation in future. Results: Of 166 general symptoms of 29 medicines, LRs and confined LRs >1.5 were elicited for 6 and 49 symptoms, respectively. Conclusion: In spite of considerable caveats, it is the first insight into prevalence and LRs of general symptoms of less frequently prescribed homoeopathic medicines. Further research is warranted.


How to cite this article:
Manchanda RK, Chakraborty P, Koley M, Singh D, Singh P, Singh O, Prasad VG, Singh JP, Nain SS, Pradhan PK, Ramteke SS, Bawaskar R, Debata LP, Saha S, Nayak C, Rutten L. Retrospective estimation of prevalence and likelihood ratio of general symptoms of 29 less frequently prescribed homoeopathic medicines by clinical verification.Indian J Res Homoeopathy 2019;13:72-80


How to cite this URL:
Manchanda RK, Chakraborty P, Koley M, Singh D, Singh P, Singh O, Prasad VG, Singh JP, Nain SS, Pradhan PK, Ramteke SS, Bawaskar R, Debata LP, Saha S, Nayak C, Rutten L. Retrospective estimation of prevalence and likelihood ratio of general symptoms of 29 less frequently prescribed homoeopathic medicines by clinical verification. Indian J Res Homoeopathy [serial online] 2019 [cited 2019 Sep 16 ];13:72-80
Available from: http://www.ijrh.org/article.asp?issn=0974-7168;year=2019;volume=13;issue=2;spage=72;epage=80;aulast=Manchanda;type=0