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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-March 2017
Volume 11 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-84

Online since Thursday, February 23, 2017

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EDITORIAL  

Significance of animal model research in homoeopathy p. 1
Raj K Manchanda
DOI:10.4103/ijrh.ijrh_5_17  
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Action of diosgenin and homoeopathic pathogenesis of Dioscorea villosa p. 5
Kisor Kumar Naskar, Ompriya Mishra
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.200845  
Background: Dioscorea villosa is a popular herbal remedy for pains. Early Americans used this to treat colic which is also established in homoeopathic proving and verified clinically along with other important phenomena. Diosgenin is its primary active ingredient. It has been investigated that all possible revealed actions of this plant are due to this ingredient. Objective: The aim of this study is to understand pathological background and prescribing areas of D. villosa by correlating and analyzing Homoeopathic pathogenesis with the knowledge of pathophysiological activities of Diosgenin. Study Method: Information was collected from various researches on animal and human models regarding actions of Diosgenin. Homoeopathic pathogenesis of D. villosa have been studied and analyzed from 'The Guiding Symptoms of our Materia Medica' by C. Hering and also from the experiences of different authors to find pathological background as well as prescribing areas of D. villosa by correlating with the actions of Diosgenin. Result: Diosgenin has prominent action on cholesterol metabolism, hormones (oestrogen and dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA]), inflammations, and allergic activities on animal and human models. These pathological actions of Diosgenin have similarity with the pathological background of homoeopathic pathogenesis of D. villosa. Conclusion: Actions of Diosgenin reflect in the homoeopathic pathogenesis of D. villosa such as altered cholesterol metabolism, irregularity of hormonal (DHEA and estrogen) functions, and anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic phenomena with their related manifestations. Moreover, these might be the underlying pathological essence of this drug.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

What is a homoeopathic symptom, in daily practice and research? p. 12
Lex Rutten, KC Muraleedharan, Vaishali H Shinde, Raj K Manchanda
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.200851  
Background: For two centuries, homoeopathic practitioners are using personal characteristics, symptoms, and diagnoses/conditions to compare the “patient picture” with the “medicine picture.” All data are considered within the context of the totality, using a so-called heuristic strategy. In prognostic factor research analyzing homoeopathic symptoms, we cannot use this context. Question: What is the essence of a homoeopathic symptom and how do we make assessment of homoeopathic symptoms applicable in daily practice? Methods: A questionnaire with seventy polar symptoms represented in Likert scales was tested in an outpatient clinic in 300 patients. Prevalence of symptoms and correlations between symptoms and between symptoms and conditions were analyzed. Outcome: The prevalence of symptoms varied widely; sometimes, prevalence was too high to give meaningful information. Theoretical considerations about heuristics can explain this variation. There is a considerable correlation between symptoms and between some symptoms and some conditions. Conclusion: The main characteristic of a homoeopathic symptom is its peculiarity, resulting in low prevalence. We can achieve this in research by using more cutoff values in our questionnaire and by guiding the filling in of the questionnaires by well-trained doctors. Correlations between symptoms and between symptoms and conditions should be monitored. Standardization of prognostic factor research is necessary to be able to generalize results.
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Analysis of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of some homoeopathic mother tinctures p. 21
Saeed Ahmad, Tayyeba Rehman, Waheed Mumtaz Abbasi, Muhammad Mohsin Zaman
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.200843  
Background: Antioxidant compounds are widely used in health protection. Homoeopathic mother tinctures are commonly prescribed for prevention and cure of many illnesses. Objective: The present study focused to determine the antioxidant potential of six commonly prescribed mother tinctures. i.e. Syzygium jambolanum, Damiana, Cinchona officinalis, Chelidonium majus, Convallaria majalis, Coca. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity was estimated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition assay. A volume of 0.1 mM solution of DPPH was used while mother tinctures (5, 2.5, and 1.25 μl volumes) were used for estimating antioxidant activity. Quercetin was taken as a standard control in antioxidant activity. Total phenolic content was measured by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent assay. Total phenolic content of mother tinctures was measured in comparison to gallic acid. Results: Results of the study showed the significant antioxidant activity and high total phenolic content of all tested mother tinctures in the following order: Syzygium jambolanum, Damiana, Cinchona officinalis, Chelidonium majus, Convallaria majalis, Coca. Conclusion: Antioxidant potential of mother tinctures is related to total phenolic content present in them, and their role in prevention and cure of diseases may link through their antioxidant activity. Among six selected mother tinctures, S. jambolanum has highest antioxidant potential.
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Pharmacognostic and physicochemical evaluation of homoeopathic drug: Erigeron canadensis L. p. 26
Padma Rao Pogaku, Subramanian Palani, Sudhakar Penthala, P Sreeman Narayana, Nagaraju Mukkamula
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.200841  
Background: Erigeron canadensis L. is an erect annual herb belonging to the family Asteraceae. Aerial parts are used in Homoeopathy for bruises, cough, dysuria, gonorrhea, haemorrhages, haemorrhoids, spermatorrhea, and wounds. Objective: The pharmacognostic and physicochemical studies have been carried out to facilitate the use of correct species and lay down standards of raw drug materials. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies of the leaf and stem of authentic samples of E. canadensis L. have been carried out. Physicochemical parameters of the raw drug include extractive values, ash value, and formulation; besides weight per mL, total solids, and alcohol content, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and ultraviolet (UV) studies are given. Results: Epidermal cells often possess crystals of calcium oxalate. Stomata are anomocytic, anisocytic, and tetracytic types. Trichomes are uniseriate and conical in structure. The mid vein in transection is flat on adaxial and is ribbed toward abaxial, with a secretory cavity beneath the central vascular bundle. Stem in transection is round. The vascular tissue is made of several vascular bundles in a ring. Crystals of calcium oxalate occur in the epidermis, cortex, and pith of stem. In mature stem, secondary xylem is well developed with a reduced phloem. The determined physicochemical data, namely, extractive values, ash values, and preparation of for raw drug and weight per mL, total solids, and alcohol content besides UV and HPTLC profile for finished product are provided. Conclusions: The presented morphoanatomical features along with powder microscopic and organoleptic characters and physicochemical data are diagnostic to establish the standards for ensuring quality and purity of the drug.
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Preclinical evaluation of antiarthritic activity of ultra-diluted preparations of capsaicin alkaloids (CP-10), tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and Magnesium phosphoricum in wistar rats p. 34
Rajesh Shah, Sadhana Sathaye
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.200848  
Background: The use of animal models in the development of new medicine and research is common in the conventional medicine. Animal model for new drug discovery and efficacy testing for preclinical research is explored in Homoeopathy only by a few. This study explores the possibility to test in a controlled way the effects of homoeopathic remedies on experimental model of acute inflammation in rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into seven groups (seventy rats of 6–8 weeks' age); medicines were evaluated by oral administration in the Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis. Two new homoeopathic preparations, a combination of Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin (CP-10), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and one existing homoeopathic medicine, Magnesium phosphoricum (0.6 ml oral), were evaluated against vehicle control using Diclofenac as a standard. Edema was measured using a water-based plethysmometer, before and at different times after arthritis induction. Results: Magnesium phosphoricum showed good results, almost similar to Diclofenac at days 7 and 21, whereas CP-10 and TNF-α showed nonsignificant results. The body processes reversed the inflammatory condition on day 7 onward indicated by similar paw volume of all the treatments. Arthritic index was higher with negative control, which was decreased by CP-10 although nonsignificantly on days 7 and 21. Diclofenac and Magnesium phosphoricum showed significant reduction in arthritic index on days 7 and 21. Conclusion: Ultra-diluted homoeopathic preparations of Magnesium phosphoricum exhibited definite antiarthritic activity. The same could have been confirmed studying the levels of inflammatory biomarkers in a study with longer treatment period.
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Characterization and haemocompatibility of Aurum metallicum for its potential therapeutic application p. 41
Subrata Kar, Monalisa Chakraborty, Papiya Nandy, Ruma Basu, Sukhen Dasa, Durga Sankar Bhar, Raj K Manchanda, Anil Khurana, Debadatta Nayak
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.200847  
Background: The objective of the study was to characterize homoeopathic nanomedicine Aurum metallicum and evaluate its biocompatibility, to explore its possible application as injectables. Metal-based homoeopathic medicine, Aurum metallicum, was chosen as a model drug and the haemocompatibility of the drug at three different potencies 6C, 30C, and 200C were studied to find the justification of the drug as an injectable candidate for clinical application. Methods: The model drug Aurum metallicum at the three potencies was characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Hemocompatibility of the homoeopathic medicine was performed by haemolysis assay. Red blood cell obtained from fresh human blood by centrifugation was incubated with Aurum metallicum. Haemoglobin release was measured using UV-vis spectrophotometer at 540 nm. Results: The DLS and FESEM studies show a decrease of particle size with increasing potency. The zeta potential values show a fairly constant value measured at an interval of 10 days. The haemolysis percentage for 6C, 30C, and 200C was 9.73%, 8.16%, and 0.73%, respectively. Conclusion: The nanomedicine Aurum metallicum was nontoxic at all doses of 6C, 30C, and 200C. The haemolytic percentage also shows that 200C is nonhemolytic, showing haemolysis <2% as per the American Society for Testing and Materials guidelines. The undertaking of larger controlled and in-depth qualitative studies is warranted.
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Safety studies of homoeopathic drugs in acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity in rats p. 48
Surender Singh, Prerna Kalra, Ritu Karwasra, Anil Khurana, Raj K Manchanda, Yogendra Kumar Gupta
DOI:10.4103/ijrh.ijrh_68_16  
Background: Homoeopathic drugs are frequently recommended in day to day life as therapeutic agents by homoeopathic practitioners. However, safety of homoeopathic drugs remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components involved. Aim: The objective of the present study was to investigate the acute, subacute, and chronic oral toxicity of different homoeopathic drugs (Ferrum phosphoricum 3X, Ferrum phosphoricum 6X, Calcarea phosphoricum 6X, and Magnesium phosphoricum 6X) in experimental models. Materials and Methods: In acute oral toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered orally at 2000mg/kg body weight, and animals were observed for toxic symptoms till 10 days as per the OECD guidelines. For subacute and chronic toxicity study, homoeopathic drugs were administered for 28 and 180 days, respectively, as per the OECD guidelines. At the end of 28 and 180 days, the animals were sacrificed and toxicity parameters were assessed. Histopathological evaluation of different organs was also performed to assess any toxicity. Results: In acute toxicity study, no mortality was found at a dose of 2000 mg/kg which indicates that oral LD50of homoeopathic drugs were more than 2000 mg/kg. The administration of drugs at a dose of 70 mg/kg body weight for 28 and 180 days did not produce any significant change in haematological and biochemical parameters of male and female rats as compared to normal control group. No pathological changes were observed in histology of various organs of treated rats as compared to normal control animals. Conclusion: These homoeopathic drugs are safe & produce no toxicity when administered for longer duration.
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Homoeopathic medicine Mercurius solubilis treatment improves cerebral blood flow and memory in experimentally induced Dementia in rats p. 58
Kashif Hanif, Manoj Kumar, Neetu Singh, Rakesh Shukla
DOI:10.4103/ijrh.ijrh_74_16  
Background: Mercurius solubilis (Merc. sol) is a known, accepted homoeopathic medicine for the treatment of various mouth, throat, eye, and ear infections. Previous studies suggested that Merc. sol has anti-inflammatory properties which could be beneficial in memory impairment. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Merc. sol on learning and memory and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the rat model of impaired learning and memory function induced by intracerebroventricularly (ICV) administered streptozotocin (STZ). Materials and Methods: The different potencies of Merc. sol (6, 30, 200, and 1M) were given for 17 days in memory-impaired rats, induced by ICV administration of STZ (3 mg/kg). The Morris water maze test was used to evaluate the learning and memory function on the 14th, 15th, and 16th day. The laser doppler flow meter was used to measure CBF on the 17th day. Results: There was a significant reduction in CBF along with learning and memory functions in STZ (ICV)-treated rats, which were significantly attenuated by the treatment of Merc. sol at all potencies (6, 30, 200, and 1M). Conclusion: Our results demonstrated the effectiveness of Merc. sol in improving memory function and CBF. Thus, it could be used as a therapeutic agent in dementia.
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A retrospective study of homoeopathic treatment in patients with heel pain with or without Calcaneal Spur p. 64
Suraia Parveen
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.200844  
Background: Heel pain is a common clinical condition which significantly affects the quality of life. It is frequently associated with calcaneal spur (CS). Despite its high prevalence, the optimal treatment remains unclear. The aim and objective of this study is to evaluate the extent of CS in heel pain; correlation of CS with some sociodemographic and health-related factors; and outcome of homoeopathic treatment over a period of 6 months. Methodology: It was a retrospective study done at Dr. Anjali Chatterjee Regional Research Institute for Homoeopathy, Kolkata. Samples were selected from the patients referred for ankle X-ray from August 2014 to July 2015 for nontraumatic heel pain. Their files were traced from outpatient department, and treatment records were reviewed over the next 6 months. Results: Totally 92 patients, 70 women and 22 men, had undergone lateral X-ray of ankle for nontraumatic heel pain, of which 76 (82.6%) patients had CS. Extent of CS was found to be higher in case of females, older age, overweight, and profession of housemaid or manual labor. Homoeopathic treatment showed positive response in nearly 75% of the CS patients. The most useful medicines were Calcarea flouricum, Rhus toxicodendron, Ledum palustre, and Aranea diadema. Conclusion: CS was found in nearly 80% of patients presenting with heel pain, which showed association with female sex, overweight, increasing age, and profession requiring heel stress. Homoeopathic treatment was effective in 3/4th of CS patients, and Rhus toxicodendron and Calcarea flouricum are the two most commonly used medicines.
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CASE REPORT Top

Homoeopathic treatment of ulcerative Colitis: A case report p. 74
Partha Pratim Pal, Madhu Sudhan Ghosh, Abhijit Chakma
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.200842  
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is one of the most common inflammatory bowel diseases. As in most of the cases, the exact cause is unknown Homoeopathy, however, provides a better response in such conditions, one such case report is presented below. Patient attended out patient department (OPD) chiefly for complaints of frequent passage of bloody stool and abdominal pain. He was suffering from idiopathic UC for the past 10 years. After unsatisfactory outcome with modern medicine, patient turned to homoeopathic treatment. After detailed case-taking and repertorization, Hydrastis was given in low potency, and gradually, the potency was raised as per the response of the medicine upon patient. Within 3–4 months of homoeopathic treatment, the patient started improving and continues to be free from his complains at the time of last follow-up visit in OPD.
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REMINISCENCES Top

Learning from the past: Review of the central council for research in Homoeopathy Quarterly Bulletin 2002 (volume 24) and 2003 (volume 25) p. 79
Uttam Singh
DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.200852  
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ERRATUM Top

Erratum: A randomized comparative trial in the management of Alcohol Dependence: individualized Homoeopathy versus standard Allopathic treatment p. 84

DOI:10.4103/0974-7168.200840  
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