|Year : 2017 | Volume
| Issue : 4 | Page : 244-248
Prevention of anthrax epidemic in sheep and goats with Anthracinum 200
Balakrishna Rao Dabbir
Sreepathi Veterinary Services, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India
|Date of Web Publication||29-Dec-2017|
Dr. Balakrishna Rao Dabbir
Sreepathi Veterinary Services, Nagarajupet, Kadapa - 516 001, Andhra Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Objective: To study the effect of Anthracinum CH 200 to prevent anthrax in sheep and goats in less and highly endemic villages of Kadapa district, Andhra Pradesh, India was studied. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 159,250 sheep and goats, in anthrax-endemic Kadapa district in India, from 2003 to 2008, consecutively covering 1 endemic and 17 less endemic villages. Fifteen millilitres of Anthracinum 200 dilution was mixed thoroughly with 1 L of 2.5% albendazole suspension and drenched orally either with a drenching gun or with a 10-ml syringe, in a single bolus of 10 ml for adults and 5 ml for young ones. Results: All the sheep and goats were protected from Anthrax with a single dose of Anthracinum CH 200 both in non\endemic villages. The ratio of cost of vaccine to cost of Homoeopathic Prophylatic was worked out to be 5.47:1. Conclusions: Homoeopathy is very effective in preventing the anthrax in sheep and goats at a very cheap price and is very safe and has a rapid response.
Keywords: Anthrax, Epidemics, Homeopathy, Prevention, Albendazole, Anthracinum CH 200
|How to cite this article:|
Dabbir BR. Prevention of anthrax epidemic in sheep and goats with Anthracinum 200. Indian J Res Homoeopathy 2017;11:244-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Dabbir BR. Prevention of anthrax epidemic in sheep and goats with Anthracinum 200. Indian J Res Homoeopathy [serial online] 2017 [cited 2018 Sep 20];11:244-8. Available from: http://www.ijrh.org/text.asp?2017/11/4/244/221959
| Introduction|| |
Anthrax, a highly infectious and fatal disease of mammals and humans, is caused by a relatively large, spore-forming rectangular-shaped bacterium called Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax is most common in wild and domestic herbivores (e.g., cattle, sheep, goats, camels and antelopes) but can also be seen in people exposed to tissue from infected animals to contaminated animal products.
An anthrax epidemic occurs round the year and through out the globe, but the prevalence is high in the summer months (Anthrax years) and anthrax spore viability was observed in pond water for 18 years, in moist and dry soils for 33 years and in sealed soil for 60 years.,
It has been observed that high pH and high contents of calcium in the soil contribute to maintain the spores viable for a longer time. These soil spores cause new infections when they come into contact with a suitable new host.,
Anthrax outbreaks in animals in nearly 200 countries were recorded by the World Anthrax Data Site, the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems for Public Health.,
Signs exhibited by affected animals are sudden death and are by far the most common sign. Most of the affected animals showed trembling, high temperature, difficulty in breathing and convulsions before death. This usually occurs over a period of 24 h. After death, blood may not clot, resulting in a small amount of bloody discharge from the nose, mouth and anus.
An outbreak of anthrax was reported in 135 goats in 2005, 251 ones in 2006 and 216 ones in 2007 in Andhra Pradesh, in the same state 51 cases were reported in human beings in 2009 and 11 deaths occurred after consuming anthrax-affected meat.
The disease is enzootic in India. The disease is endemic in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Maharashtra and Jammu and Kashmir. The outbreaks in small ruminants, especially sheep, are maximally recorded from Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, which might be due to high sheep population in those states and their migratory patterns. Anthrax is endemic in Kadapa District of Andhra Pradesh state. Although Kadapa district was declared endemic, certain villages are highly endemic and some are less endemic due to occasional occurrence of anthrax. The degree of endemicity depends, in particular, on preventive measures such as timely vaccinations and proper disposal of dead animals. An endemic area becomes less or severe endemic depending on the adoption of the above two major measures. Once the symptoms are observed in sheep and goats, no system of medicine can save them from death since the disease is highly pathogenic and rapid in the course.
The shepherds approached for treatment for. The affected sheep and goats from 2003 to 2008, brought to Sreepathi Veterinary Services, Kadapa, were included in the study. No vaccinations and allopathic treatments were given. An attempt was made to control the epidemic only with Homoeopathy. It was gathered from the shepherds of endemic and less endemic anthrax belt that they regularly deworm their flock once in 3 months, either with albendazole or a combination of albendazole with oxyclozanide or rafoxanide to reduce worm burden and to fatten the stock.
In the present study, an attempt is made to find out the preventive efficacy of homoeopathic medicine Anthracinum CH200 Anthracinum CH 200, as a solitary oral dose, immediately drenched, in the begining of outbreak in less endemic villages and well before the expected time of occurrence of outbreak in highly endemic ones, instead of vaccinating with anthrax spore vaccine.
The rubrics of the homoeopathic nosode preparation of Anthracinum CH 200 match most of the symptoms of anthrax disease.Anthracinum CH 200 is an alcoholic extract of the anthrax toxin prepared from the spleens of affected animals died of anthrax.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Materials Albendazole 2.5% suspension (Cureben ®, Cure Vet Formulations Hyderabad) and Anthracinum CH 200 (Ramakrishna Homeo Stores [P] Ltd., Hyderabad) were purchased yearly and tried in the present study.
Since pills drops (dilutions) or pills (triturations) are not practicable to medicate the large population of sheep, a stable, easily adoptable and known vehicle in the form of albendazole (Cureben) was selected. Fifteen millilitres of Anthracinum 200 was mixed with 1 L of Cureben ® and the contents were shaken thoroughly. 10 ml of this solution was administered to sheep and goats and 5 ml to lamb and kids (6 months), either with an automatic drencher gun or with 10 ml disposable syringe, as a single dose.
Treatment protocol: Two preventive trials were conducted on sheep and goats, brought for veterinary advice, to Sreepathi Veterinary Services, Kadapa, designated as Protocol 1 and Protocol 2.
A total of 65,700 sheep brought with anthrax symptoms from 17 non endemic villages, occurred for the first time, during 2003–2008, were included in the study. The shepherds approached for advice, as and when their flock was attacked with anthrax. The shepherds were supplied anthracinum to be dosed immediately to livestock at risk orally to control the outbreak [Table 1].
|Table 1: (Protocol: 1) Homoeopathic treatment in less endemic areas (new villages)|
Click here to view
A total of 93,550 sheep from highly endemic village, Pagadalapalli, from 2003 to 2008, were included this pilot study [Table 2] and [Table 3]. In the Pagadalapalli village, the shepherds encountered the anthrax outbreaks regularly in every year since 2001 [Table 2]. The shepherds used to contain the epidemic with spore vaccine, but with limited success. After witnessing the benefit of Homoeopathy, they embraced the minimal dose therapy.
|Table 2: (Protocol: 2) Mortality rate in sheep in highly endemic Pagadalapalli|
Click here to view
|Table 3: (Protocol: 2) Homoeopathic treatment in sheep in highly endemic Pagadalapalli|
Click here to view
They drenched their sheep and goats with Anthracinum CH 200 twice mixed with 2.5% albendazole, one during the month of December (Winter Season) and the second during the month of June (Summer Season) of every year, from 2003 to 2008. The number of sheep and goats medicated was 93,550 with Anthracinum CH 200 [Table 2]. During the period, sheep and goats were not vaccinated against anthrax. The variations in the population during 2003–2008 were due to the sale of adults and young stock to clear their loans and to run their families.
| Result and Discussion|| |
Anthracinum CH 200 mixed very well with 2.5% of albendazole. Hence, the administration of the single dose with much less effort to a big flock was possible. Anthracinum 200 mixed with albendazole could prevent anthrax in sheep in non-endemic or endemic belts effectively.
The shepherds are in the habit of getting rid of gastrointestinal worms, once in 3 months, every year, regularly with albendazole. In spite of adopting this type of extension activity, they encountered anthrax outbreaks, both in endemic and in non endemic areas.
The combination perhaps acted synergistically, because albendazole is a broad-spectrum dewormer which will eliminate harmful worms of the gastrointestinal tract and reduce stress and improve the nutritional status and also act as a vehicle to carry and deliver the Anthracinum CH 200 to the sheep. In endemic areas, with sudden and severe outbreaks, the task of prevention is a formidable one. Conducting simple vaccination will be of no use, and early treatment and vigorous implementation of a preventive program is essential to reduce losses among livestock. Livestock at risk should be immediately treated with a long-acting antibiotic to stop all potential incubating infections. This is followed by vaccination 7–10 days after antibiotic treatment. Any animals becoming sick after initial treatment and/or vaccination should be retreated immediately and revaccinated a month later. Simultaneous use of antibiotics and vaccine is inappropriate, because available commercial vaccines for animals are live vaccines.
Computation of cost/benefit ratio of spore vaccine and Homeopathic nosode.
- Cost of vaccine per dose (primary) Rs 2.00
- GST @ 12% Rs 0.24
- Cost of booster dose with tax Rs 2.24
- Vaccinator charges Rs 2.00
- Transport and cold chain charges Rs 2.00
- The total cost of allopathic vaccination Rs. 8.48
- The cost of albendazole (cureben) per litre. Rs. 150
- The cost of 450 ml of Anthracinum Rs. 300
- The cost of single dose of Anthracinum mixed with albendazole Rs. 1.55/-
- The cost of vaccine/cost of anthracinum nosode, Rs 5.47:1.
Source & reference -anthrax vaccines supplied by AH Department of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka).
The vaccine contains only culture with spores whereas Anthracinum CH 200 is an alcoholic extract of anthrax-affected sheep spleen. It can be assumed that the Homoeopathy medicine which is prepared from alcoholic extracts of anthrax sheep spleen may not only contain spores but also lethal and antigenic toxins. In-depth research is to be conducted in this direction to find out the efficacy of Homoeopathy over vaccination.
| Conclusions|| |
In Pagadalapalli, during the period and after medication of homoeopathic administration, not even a single incidence of anthrax was reported till date. No sheep and goat succumbed to anthrax. Anthrax epidemic was almost eliminated. Containment of epidemic with vaccination is time-consuming. With Homoeopathy, prevention is cheap and rapid. The alkaline pH of soil, high moisture and organic contents and ambient temperature more than 15°C are the deciding factors for triggering large anthrax outbreaks and can forewarn the infection risk of anthrax in a particular area and so the occurrence of epidemic can be predicted and prevented with Anthracinum CH 200.
I acknowledge Dr. Paranjyothy Kanni and Mr. Nanjundaiah, Bengaluru, for helping me to prepare the manuscript.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
| References|| |
Reginald J. Epizootiol and Ecol of Anthrax. USDA Report; 2007. p. 1-44.
Chen W-J, Lai S-J, Yang Y, Liu K, Li X-L, Yao H-W, et al
. Mapping the Distribution of Anthrax in Mainland China, 2005-2013. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016;10:e0004637. doi:10.1371/journal. pntd.0004637.
Li Yu, Yin W, Jones MH, Wang I, Mu Di, Xiang R, Epidemiology of Human Anthrax in China, 1955–2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2017;23:14-21.
Wilson JB, Russell KE. Isolation of Bacillus anthracis
from SOIL stored 60 years. J Bacteriol 1964;87:237-8.
Dragon DC, Rennie RP. The ecology of anthrax spores: Tough but not invincible. Can Vet J 1995;36:295-301.
Hugh-Jones M, Blackburn J. The ecology of Bacillus anthracis
. Mol Aspects Med 2009;30:356-67.
Berger S. Anthrax Global Status. Gideon Inform, 8721 Santa Monica Blvd, Suite 234 Los Angeles, CA 90069USA 2017. p. 126-9.
Rahman A. All India Co-ordinate Research Project on Animal Diseases Monitoring and Surveillance. Annual Report; 2010-2011. p. 1-149.
Boericke W. New Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica with Repertory. 11th
ed. New Delhi: B Jain Publishers(P) Ltd.; 2007;1:50.
Clarke JH. Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica. Vol. 2. New Delhi: Jain Publications; 2013;18.
Marriner SE, Bogan JA. Pharmacokinetics of Albendazole in sheep. Am J Vet Res 1980;41:1126-9.
Ahmoud RA. Involvement of free radicals in parasitic infestation. J Appl Anim Res 2013;41:6976.
Turner AJ, Galvin JW, Rubira RJ, Condron RJ, Bradley T. Experiences with vaccination and epidemiological investigations on an anthrax outbreak in Australia in 1997. J Appl Microbiol 1999;87:294-7
Hampson K, Lembo T, Bessell P, Auty H, Packer C, Halliday J, et al.
Predictability of anthrax infection in the Serengeti, Tanzania. J Appl Ecol 2011;48:1333-44.
Mock M, Fouet A. Anthrax. Annu Rev Microbiol 2001;55:647-71.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]