|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 3 | Page : 141-151
A review of Basic Research on Homoeopathy from a physicist's point of view
Centre for Interdisciplinary Research and Education, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
|Date of Submission||07-May-2015|
|Date of Acceptance||06-Aug-2015|
|Date of Web Publication||30-Sep-2015|
Centre for Interdisciplinary Research and Education, 404 B, Jodhpur Park, Kolkata - 700 068, West Bengal
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Homoeopathic medicine has been one of the world's most widely practiced alternative therapies. However, that the potency of a homoeopathic medicine increases with dilution followed by succussion (together termed as potentization) has thrown challenges to the scientific community at large. A recent hypothesis, advanced by us and others, is that due to the process of potentization, the size of the constituent particles decreases and eventually reaches nanodimension. This decrease in size with increase in potency has been verified by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering studies. The increase in potency is manifested in its increased effect on membrane fluidity. The change in potency also leaves its signature on Ultraviolet-Visible spectra, Fourier transform infrared radiation spectra and Raman spectra. We have taken one step further to carry this nano-dimensional property of homoeopathic medicine and put it into several technical applications. And in so doing, we have connected the important, old, un-quantifiable effects with the latest quantifiable technology and opened up an era of applications with more possibilities.
Keywords: Anisotropy, Characterization, Homoeopathy, Nanomedicine, Nano-technology, Potentization
|How to cite this article:|
Nandy P. A review of Basic Research on Homoeopathy from a physicist's point of view. Indian J Res Homoeopathy 2015;9:141-51
|How to cite this URL:|
Nandy P. A review of Basic Research on Homoeopathy from a physicist's point of view. Indian J Res Homoeopathy [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 May 20];9:141-51. Available from: http://www.ijrh.org/text.asp?2015/9/3/141/166372
| Introduction|| |
Homoeopathy is a time-tested, empirical system of healing that has been used universally for more than 200 years, because of its negligible side effects, low cost, easy availability, and easy applicability. The fact that these medicines are active at extreme dilution (dilution factor even beyond 10 400 ) and that one sample of such apparent 'zero' concentration is different from another sample of apparent "zero" concentration have posed insurmountable obstacles to acceptance by the conventional scientific community, leading to the stance that these medicines have only a placebo effect.
The ultrahigh dilution doses, as are often prescribed in Homoeopathy, can exhibit biological and pharmacological activities was the controversial finding by the group of Davenas et al. 1988.  This was regarded as 'unbelievable' by the so-called academic science,  though the clinical action of the medicine at very high dilution on plants, animals, and human beings has been convincingly shown by several groups of researchers. Over the years, there has been thorough study on the search for a molecular mechanism of action of potentized homoeopathic drugs in living organisms  and experimental evidences are given in support of the biological effects and physical basis of homoeopathic potencies.  To explain the action of homoeopathic drugs in all living systems, 'gene regulatory hypothesis' has been put forward. 
To explain this unique phenomenon that, unlike allopathy medicines, the homoeopathic medicine becomes more potent at higher dilution, several hypotheses have been put forward, ranging from liquid memory, clathrate formation, quantum mechanics, relativity etc. The Silica hypothesis suggests the presence of physical entities,  whereas the liquid memory hypothesis is supported by Elia et al. 
It has been realized that the Very Low Molarity Repetitive Succussive Diluted Liquid (VLMRSDL), of which homoeopathic medicine is an example, has properties that are modified significantly from the original liquid. This is reflected in the measured values of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR),  Ultraviolet (UV) transmission, Dielectric behaviour, Electrical conductivity, and heat of mixing measurements of the resulting VLMRSDL.  Quantum field theory analysis of experimental data for VLMRSDL indicates that succussion excites rotons and phonons that are responsible for the change in potency of the medicine.  In a different context, Maity et al. have shown that a characteristic set of resonance frequencies exists for different potencies of the drug Cuprum metallicum. 
In order to study and compare their physical properties, such as spectral characteristics, size distribution at different potencies, and effect on membrane fluidity, we have worked with two different homoeopathic drugs, C. metallicum, which is metal-derived and hydrophilic in nature,  and Aconitum napellus, which is plant-derived and hydrophobic in nature.  In both cases, experimental evidences are there to prove that the potency of the drug plays a very significant role in its physicochemical properties.
| Effect of potency on the size of the drug particles|| |
We posed the question that does the process of dilution and succussion (together termed as potentization) alter the size of nanoparticles of homoeopathic medicines?
Nanoparticles are synthesized in laboratories by transferring mechanical energy through wet ball milling process. It was our assumption that perhaps the succussion process used in preparing high-potency homoeopathic medicine and in which a large amount of mechanical energy (~404.3 Newton-meter for 10 strokes)  is transferred, causes the size reduction of the original aggregated drug particles to nano-dimension in a similar way.
The indirect evidence of existence of nanoparticles at extreme potencies of the homoeopathic medicine Aconitum napellus was suggested by Nandy et al. and was first reported in an International Conference, held in January 2010 and later two papers were published on this issue in peer reviewed journals in 2011. , Using homoeopathic remedies prepared from a metal powder, Chikramane et al. documented the presence of nanoparticles in them.  The experiments of Upadhyay and Nayak  exhibited high nanoparticle contents, rich in Silicon and with crystalline nature, but the size distribution of the nanoparticles and their clusters were found to be nearly the same at different potencies. According to these authors, the nanoparticles might acquire the information of the starting source encrypted on them by means of epitaxy - the growing of a crystal on top of another crystal, where its orientation is determined by the underlying crystal. Chikramane et al.  have also shown that triturated synthetic gold nanoparticles, which mimic the ultrafine gold powder that results from the grinding process used in producing homeopathic medicines, levitate to the surface and are preserved there as a monolayer at the air-liquid interface. This topology is carried through the subsequent steps of dilution, forming an asymptotic concentration. These experiments have been reviewed by Frye. 
Using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies, Ghosh et al.  have reported that the size of C. metallicum drug particles indeed decreases with increase in potency [Figure 1]A.
|Figure 1: (A) (a) For homoeopathic medicine Cuprum metallicum, a metal-derived homoeopathic medicine, size distribution as estimated by dynamic light scattering measurement (a-c) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy image (d-f). Here (a and d) are for potency 6C; (b) and (e) for potency 30C; (c) and (f) for potency 200C. (B) Field emission-scanning electron microscopy image of homoeopathic medicine Aconitum napellus, a plant-derived homoeopathic medicine, (a) is for potency 6C; (b) and (c) are for potencies 30C and 200C|
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The mean size of the nanoparticles of C. metallicum at three different potencies 6C, 30C, and 200C, as measured by DLS, are approximately in the range of 13.5-18.5 nm, 1.5-1.7 nm, and 0.62 nm, respectively [Figure 1]A: a-c. This is also supported by the HRTEM measurements [Figure 1]A: d-f. However, the size distribution, obtained from DLS study when the experimental sample was in the liquid state, is not exactly the same as measured by HRTEM image study where aggregation takes place during drying the sample under vacuum.
The zeta potential for C. metallicum is negative due to the fact that the lone pair from the hydroxyl group coming from the lactose, which was used in the preparation of the drug, provides an electron-rich environment on the surface of the nanoparticles.  This confers stability and particles have less chances of aggregation.
The field emission-scanning electron microscopy diagram [Figure 1]B: a-c of the drug A. napellus at different potencies shows how with increase in potency the polydispersive drug aggregates change to mono-dispersive ones with decrease in aggregate size. Here the sample was prepared by drop cast method where there is possibility of aggregation. The figure shows that at 6C potency of the drug, the average dimension of the drug-aggregate lies between 120 nm and 150 nm. The range of dimension of the drug-aggregates is within 51-64 nm for 30C potency, while it reduces to 20-25 nm for 200C potency of the drug  [Table 1].
|Table 1: Comparison of fluidity parameters of A. napellus (Drug A) with that of C. metallicum (Drug B)|
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The origin of the two medicines C. metallicum, a metal-derived homoeopathic medicine, and A. napellus, a plant-derived homoeopathic medicine being different, and the images are also different; for the former it is more well defined, while for the later it is not.
| Effect of potency on spectral properties|| |
Rao et al.  have shown that Raman and UV spectroscopy can differentiate between the different potencies of a given medicine. Proton NMR relaxation study by Demangeat  demonstrated modifications of the solvent throughout the low to ultramolecular range of dilution and existence of superstructure even beyond 12C.
Ultraviolet-visible Spectroscopy study of Cuprum metallicum and Aconitum napellus
The absorption spectra at three potencies namely 6C, 30C, and 200C of C. metallicum and A. napellus are shown in [Figure 2]a and b, respectively.
|Figure 2: Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra at three different potencies: 6C, 30C, and 200C of (a) Cuprum metallicum and (b) Aconitum napellus|
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In each absorption spectrum [Figure 2]a and b, there are two absorption maxima whose intensity increase in magnitude with increase in potency associated with a blue shift. This effect can be explained as follows: The decrease in particle size gives rise to an increase in the surface to bulk ratio, thus increasing the absorption of radiation, which in turn increases the height of the absorption peaks. With the decrease in particle size, the gap between the associated energy levels increases, leading to the blue shift as observed in the UV-visible (UV-vis) spectrum. Using gold nanoparticles, He et al.  have shown that similar results are obtained, where gold nanoparticles have specific absorption spectra depending upon the dimension of the particles, and there are gradual blue shifts with decrease in diameter of the particles.
Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation Study of Cuprum metallicum and Aconitum napellus
Comparison of Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation (FTIR) spectra between different potencies of the drug C. metallicum [Figure 3]a clearly indicates the increment in absorption with increase in potency of the drug. Three bands appear in the wave number range 600-2500 cm−1 , of which the one at 2350 cm−1 corresponds to O=C=O stretching of CO 2 , the one at 1620 cm−1 corresponds to C=C alkenyl stretch, and the band at 667 cm−1 is due to −O-H stretching vibration in −C-O-H group.
Comparison of FTIR spectra [Figure 3]b between 3 different potencies of the drug A. napellus reveals that peaks for all the three potencies are obtained at the same position, but the peak intensity and sharpness increase with increase in potency.
|Figure 3: Fourier transform infrared radiation spectra at three different potencies: 6C, 30C, and 200C of (a) Cuprum metallicum and (b) Aconitum napellus|
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The band at 1385 cm−1 corresponds to phenol or tertiary alcohol, OH bend, the band at 1653 cm−1 corresponds to C=C stretch, the band at 2873 cm−1 corresponds to methyl C-H asym/sym stretch, and the band at 3351 cm−1 corresponds to normal polymeric OH stretch and hydroxyl group, H bonded OH stretch.  The minor blue shift may be the effect of succussion on the bond strength of the OH bond and H bond.
The drug-membrane interaction is basically driven by electrostatic force. The FTIR spectra records the presence of multiple hydroxyl groups coming from the lactose [Figure 3]a, used here in the preparation of the drug as a surface stabilizer. The lone pair of electrons from the hydroxyl group provides an electron-rich environment at the surface of the copper nanoparticles, assigning the negative zeta potential of the drug, which is evident from the Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) study. The charged drug molecule interacts with the polar head group where it gets adsorbed. The adsorption process of the drug onto lipid molecules is in general favored due to the high aspect ratio of the nano-size of the drug.
The Raman spectra study of the drugs revealed that there is no change in the chemical structure of the drug due to potentization.
| Effect of Potency of Homoeopathic Medicine on Membrane Fluidity|| |
Despite much research on the effect of homoeopathic medicines both in vivo and in vitro, there has been little reports on the effect of these medicines on the cell membrane, a primary site of action of most medicines. Knowledge of interaction between the drug and the membrane is crucial for explaining a drug's activity, selectivity and toxicity. These interactions may be nonspecific such as van der Waals force, electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds.
The fluid mosaic model of lipid bilayer structure of the membrane gets disrupted significantly by both hydrophobic and hydrophilic types of probes,  which disrupts lipid-lipid interactions amongst the head group and/or acyl tails. This results in changes in lipid bilayer phase behavior, related to the degree of lipid ordering and bilayer viscosity. ,,,
Membrane anisotropy, which is inverse of fluidity, can be measured  by incorporating the fluorescence polarization probe 1,6-diphenyl-1, 3, 5-hexatriene (DPH) in the liposomal membrane of dipalmiyoyl phosphatidyl choline, the well accepted model for the real biological membrane. The steady-state fluorescence anisotropy is related to the fluorescence intensity:
r = (I 1 − I 2 )/(I 1 + 2I 2 ),
where I 1 and I 2 are the vertical and horizontal components of the 428 emission band of DPH in the liposome, while the sample is being excited at 360 nm. This is a standard procedure used to measure the effect of external agents, like chemicals and drugs, on membrane fluidity.
Effect of Potency of Drug Aconitum napellus on Membrane Fluidity
Bhandary et al. , studied the effect of A. napellus on the microviscosity of the membrane and the influence of drug potency. Their work yields interesting results and indicates an increase in the membrane rigidity with increasing potency of the drug. An explanation for this effect had been sought at the molecular level, based upon the dug-lipid interaction. From the experimental data, Van't Hoff enthalpy change has been calculated, and an estimate made of the fraction of motionally restricted lipid molecules. They observed that with an increase in potency, the membrane fluidity decreased, suggesting more penetration of the drug into the membrane [Figure 4] A. This can be taken as an indirect evidence that the initial aggregated structure of the drug decreased in size with potentization, leading to nanoparticle formation of smaller dimensions, which facilitated enhanced membrane penetration and decreased membrane fluidity.
|Figure 4: (A)Temperature-dependent fluorescence anisotropy values: (a) liposomal membrane of dipalmiyoyl phosphatidyl choline (10-4 M), (b) with drug Aconitum napellus of potency 6C, (c) with drug of potency 30C, and (d) with drug of potency 200C incorporated in liposomal membrane . (B) Effect of potency of drug Cuprum metallicum on membrane fluidity|
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As the drug induces change in the fluidity profile in the liposomal membrane and also the phase transition temperature, the enthalpy change associated with this process also changes. With this perspective, we have calculated Van't Hoff enthalpy change associated with the phase transition in cases of drug-free and drug-incorporated liposomal membrane using the method of Marky and Breslauer. 
Following the method of Houbre et al.,  the number of drug bound lipid molecules was calculated from the fluorescence anisotropy data.  The value of χ, which is the fraction of motionally restricted lipid molecule, is indicated in [Table 2].
|Table 2: Effect of potency variation of drug A. napellus on phase transition temperature, Van't Hoff enthalpy change, and fraction of motionally restricted lipid molecules in the drug-incorporated liposomal membranes|
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Using the same liposomal membrane system, Ghosh et al.  have reported their study on the effect of potentization of the hydrophilic homoeopathic drug C. metallicum on the phase profile of the liposomal membrane. Here, the study shows that the fluidity of the microenvironment of the fluorescent probe increases for a lower potency of the drug, shifting the phase transition temperature to a lower value [Figure 4]B. For higher potencies, the effect is less significant. The difference in effect for the two drugs arises due to the diffference in nature of the two drugs: A. napellus being hydrophobic penetrates directly in the membrane, while C. metallicum, being hydrophilic in nature interacts with the head group of the liposomal membrane and rotates the lipid head group to create a channel and enters into the membrane interior. 
[Figure 4]B shows that incorporation of the drug has affected the membrane fluidity, and at potency 6C the fluidization is maximum. The effect is less significant when the potency is higher. Here the phase transition temperature has shifted from the higher value of the control to the lower values. Also here χ, the fraction of motionally restricted lipid molecules, decreases with the size reduction of drug particle [Table 3].
The size of the drug particle was measured from DLS study.  [Figure 1] shows that the size of the particle is in the nano-range and it decreases with the increase in potency [Table 3]. HRTEM images also support this observation of the presence of nanoparticles of drug, their spherical shape and crystalline nature, and their decrease in size with increase in potency of the drug [Figure 1]. Change in Van't Hoff enthalpy ΔH Tm is equal to the amount of heat required for each cooperative unit to undergo the phase transition. In this case, the value associated with the gel to liquid crystalline phase transition in the liposomal membrane has been calculated for each potency [Table 3].
The decrease in size of the drug particle with increase in potency helps the drug particle to penetrate within the membrane and affect the membrane anisotropy.  The electrostatic interactions perturb the existing longitudinal and lateral order of the membrane lipids, thereby inducing packing stress, which is balanced by the induction of tilt and kink in the bilayer core. This results in decrease in the values of anisotropy and the phase transition temperature. The hydrophilic probe generates a hydrophilic hole around the probe  in the hydrophobic moiety inside the bilayer, which in turn decreases the anisotropy further.
At lower dilution of the drug (6C), the change in anisotropy is greater as more drug particles are available for interacting with the lipid head group, which is obvious from the high value of the χ value [Table 3]. As at higher dilution, fewer drug particles are available to interact with the lipid head groups, and the change in anisotropy of the membrane moiety becomes less. This is also supported from the fact that the χ value decreases with increase in dilution. The optimal amount of anisotropy in health and disease cannot be determined from this study as this was performed on a model membrane system, which is much simpler than the more complex real membrane.
The shape and size of the nanoparticles play a significant role on membrane internalization. The size-dependent endocytosis as conducted by Zhang et al.  shows that spherical particles of similar size are taken up 500% more than the rod-shaped particles, as greater membrane wrapping time is required for elongated particles. The data obtained from the DLS and the HRTEM studies show that the size of the nanoparticles of the drug are in the region 0.5-20 nm and are spherical in nature, making the drug membrane interaction significant.
Comparison of change in Van't Hoff enthalpy for three dilutions [Table 3] shows that in the case of 6C the values of anisotropy is minimum [Figure 4] and the associated change in Van't Hoff enthalpy is also minimum. For the other two dilutions, values of anisotropy increase and so do the values of ΔH Tm.
From the DLS and HRTEM studies, we come to the conclusion that homeopathic potentization, which is dilution followed by succussion, changes the mean size of nanoparticles of the homoeopathic drug. The reduction in size modulates the anisotropy of the liposomal membrane and the UV-vis and FTIR spectra.
Our experimental result on the effect of the homeopathic drug C. metallicum on liposomal membrane fluidity compares well with that obtained with copper nanoparticles at low concentration, confirming that Homoeopathy is basically a nanomedicine. 
The increase in potency of homeopathic drug with dilution had been an unsolved problem for quite some time. Our experimental findings and interpretation thereof, being very fundamental in nature, indicates a solution to the puzzle that had been confronting scientists for more than two centuries.
And once again, we are reminded of the advice by Bell  that "rather than taking a defensive stance in presenting Homoeopaths to sceptical medical colleagues, homeopaths can begin to explain their field in contemporary scientific technology."
| Homoeopathic Medicine to Homoeo-Technology|| |
We have taken this property of nanoparticle formation of homoeopathic medicine one step further by utilizing them in technological applications. 
| Homoeopathy Medicine Zincum oxydatum as an agent for thermovoltage generation|| |
Harnessing solar energy using inexpensive techniques is an important challenge, and newer concepts are being developed for solar to electrical energy conversion. In search of newer materials for efficient conversion of solar energy into electrical energy, several nanomaterials have been engineered.  In order to improve the performance of solar cells and make it efficient, a very novel idea of using homeopathic medicines is hit upon.
Using a homoeopathic-medicine Zincum oxydatum, thermo-voltage has been generated in a specially designed electro-chemical cell.  Maximum voltage generated was found to increase with potency of the medicine. Efficiency of the cell with the medicine at potency 30C at 40C is ~0.39%. With a similar cell using synthetic Zinc oxide nanoparticle, efficiency was found to be ~0.37%  [Figure 5],[Figure 6] and [Figure 7].
|Figure 5: Growth and decay curve of thermovoltage generation using Zincum metallicum at potency 30C|
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|Figure 6: Scanning electron microscopy picture of Zincum oxydatum at 3 potencies: (a) 6C, (b) 30C, and (c) 200C|
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|Figure 7: Particle size distribution from dynamic light scattering of Zincum oxydatum at 30C potency |
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Homeopathic Medicine Ferrum metallicum to Improve Electrical Properties of the Polyvinylidene Fluoride Film
Electroactive polymer films currently have become the topic of intense global research work for their versatile applications in electronic industry. These films have very good piezoelectric, pyroelectric, ferroelectric, dielectric, and electro-optic properties among others and due to their high flexibility, simple fabrication processe, and nontoxicity, they have become an alternative for traditional ferroelectric ceramics. 
Out of all these polymers, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and its copolymers are selected and their characteristic properties have been manipulated manifold by incorporating suitable fillers.  In the search for suitable nontoxic filler, we have used for the first time the homoeopathic medicine F. metallicum [Figure 8].
|Figure 8: The scanning electron microscopy of polyvinylidene fluoride film doped with Ferrum metallicum at 200C|
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Our experiments have shown that incorporation of the homoeopathic medicine F. metallicum at different potencies of the medicine has increased the dielectric constant [Figure 9]a and decreased the dielectric loss [Figure 9]b. The AC conductivity of the electroactive polymer film (PVDF) also increases with frequency [Figure 9]c. The changes in values of all these three physical properties increase with increase in potency of the medicine. 
This phenomenon of increment of dielectric constant by incorporating nanomodifiers can be explained by Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars interfacial polarization effect, which appears in heterogeneous medium consisting of different phases with different permittivity and conductivity due to accumulation of the charges at the interfaces. In the film doped with F. metallicum at 200C, the nano-iron particles are well separated from each other with no such effective interaction between them and are embedded in good and homogeneously distributed polymer matrix [Figure 8]. So the interfacial area per unit volume of nanoparticles increases. This improves the average polarization associated with the particles and the coupling between the neighboring grains, resulting in the significant enhancement of dielectric constant as well as significant decrement of tangent loss.
|Figure 9: (a) Variation of dielectric constant. (b) Variation of tangent loss. (c) Variation of AC conductivity with a frequency of Polyvinylidene fluoride film doped with Ferrum metallicum at different potencies|
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For films doped with F. metallicum at potencies 6C and 30C, the grain size of iron particles are of bigger form and agglomerated which is embedded in the polymer matrix. So the interfacial area per unit volume as well as the interparticle distance decreases. This decreases the average polarization associated with the particles resulting in the further decrement of dielectric constant and AC conductivity as well as increment of tangent loss [Figure 9]a-c.
At a time when electroactive polymer films are gaining world-wide attention, this simple fabrication and nontoxic method will make the homoeo-polymer filler a suitable alternative and hence the outcome of this experiment is of great significance.
The dielectric constant of all films doped with F. metallicum at different potencies is higher than the pure polymer throughout the frequency range 20 Hz-2 MHz. The film doped with F. metallicum at 200C potency has the highest dielectric constant. This enhanced dielectric behavior is highly desirable for high-performance capacitors. The tangent loss of F. metallicum at 200C potency-doped polymer film is the lowest in that whole frequency range which is very much desirable in response to low loss electronic devices. The AC conductivity also increases with frequency for all polymer films doped with F. metallicum due to the presence of mobile metallic contents in the polymer composites. 
Thus, the pure polymer film which has comparatively low dielectric constant has been modified into materials with enhanced dielectric constant and comparatively low tangent loss by making a composite with homeopathic nanomedicine F. metallicum. The polymer film doped with F. metallicum at 200C potency can be used as a high dielectric material for the fabrication of high charge storing multilayer capacitors and can be a promising candidate for electronic industries.
| Conclusion|| |
Using several homoeopathic medicines, it has been shown that with an increase in potency the drug particle size decreases achieving nano-dimension. Konovalov has concluded that nanoassociate formation is a clue to understanding the behavior of highly diluted aqueous solution. 
Because of their reduction in size, the nanoparticles modulate the membrane fluidity, which affects membrane-based functions, including permeation of drugs through the membrane.
For the first time, we have successfully utilized the nanoparticle behavior of homoeopathic medicine in some technical applications, viz. for thermovoltage generation  and for improvement of dielectric properties of electroactive polyvinyl film PVDF. 
The standard methods used to engineer nanoparticles for technical applications are labor-intensive, expensive, and often hazardous. The great advantages of using homoeo-nanoparticles are that they are eco-friendly, easily available, and are cost effective.
Thus, by using homoeopathic medicine in technology, we have connected the important, old, un-quantifiable effects with the latest quantifiable technology and opened up an era of applications with many possibilities.
The work has been done in technical collaboration with the Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, New Delhi. Equipment facilities were obtained from different departments of Jadavpur University. Drugs were gifted from the manufacturer, Hahnemann Publishing Company, Kolkata, India. Stimulating discussion with Dr. D.S. Bhar is thankfully acknowledged.
All the data presented here are from experiments performed by us. The unpublished results are taken from our communicated papers.
Stimulating discussions with Subrata Kar is thankfully acknowledged. The author acknowledges, most happily, the help received from her students and fellow coworkers.
Financial Support and Sponsorship
The author acknowledges the support of Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, New Delhi.
Conflicts of Interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
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[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9]
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]
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