|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 20-24
Pharmacognostic study of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr.) Parl.: A drug used in Homoeopathy
Anshu Rathi1, D Suresh Baburaj2, EN Sundaram1, Sunil Kumar1, Anil Khurana2, Raj K Manchanda2
1 Officer/Scientist-4, Former Assistant Director, Central Research Institute (H), Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Survey Officer, Deputy Director, Director General, Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, Janak Puri, New Delhi, India
|Date of Submission||22-Jan-2014|
|Date of Acceptance||16-Mar-2015|
|Date of Web Publication||31-Mar-2015|
Drug Standardization Unit,Central Research Institute (H), Noida, Uttar Pradesh
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
The pharmacognostic profile of crude drug has a key role in standardization for quality, purity and drug identification. The present study deals with pharmacognostic evaluation of aerial part of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr.) Parl. a drug used in homoeopathic system of medicine for diverse clinical uses such as terrible pain in stomach, tumors, keloid, warts and lipoma of thigh. The study includes collection, identification, macroscopy, microscopy and organoleptic characteristics of aerial part of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana. Anatomically the leaf is distinguishable into a layer of the epidermis followed by parenchymatous mesophyll and resin duct in the parenchymatous cortex. Powder microscopy shows the presence of epidermal cells, parenchymatous cells and tracheids. These observations may be used as pharmacopoeial standards for identification of Cha maecyparis lawsoniana.
Keywords: Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Pharmacognosy, Resin duct
|How to cite this article:|
Rathi A, Baburaj D S, Sundaram E N, Kumar S, Khurana A, Manchanda RK. Pharmacognostic study of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr.) Parl.: A drug used in Homoeopathy. Indian J Res Homoeopathy 2015;9:20-4
|How to cite this URL:|
Rathi A, Baburaj D S, Sundaram E N, Kumar S, Khurana A, Manchanda RK. Pharmacognostic study of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr.) Parl.: A drug used in Homoeopathy. Indian J Res Homoeopathy [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Sep 23];9:20-4. Available from: http://www.ijrh.org/text.asp?2015/9/1/20/154344
| Introduction|| |
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana (Murr.) Parl. (Synonym: Cupressus lawsoniana Murr.) of the family Cupressaceae, is a large tree 43-55 m in height. The plant is known by the name Port-Orford-Cedar or Lawson's cypress. Its distribution is restricted to the coastal forests of Southwestern Oregon and Northern California in the USA.  In India, it is grown in gardens of the hills of West Bengal and Nilgiris of South India. Leaves are scaly 3-5 mm long, opposite in pairs, closely appressed to the branchlets, with narrow white markings on the underside. The lateral leaves are much longer than facial leaves. Flowers are monoecious, minute, at the ends of the branchlets. Female cones are globose, green at first but turn brown when mature, about 8 mm diameter, with 6-10 scales, each subtending 2-5 winged seeds. The male cones are 3-4 mm long, dark red, turning brown after pollen release in early spring. The bark is reddish brown and fibrous to scaly in vertical strips. The wood has a characteristic pungent, "ginger-like" odor. ,
The aerial part of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana is often employed in traditional medicine. The drug is mentioned in the homoeopathic literature , and used clinically for severe pain in stomach, keloid, tumors, lipoma of thigh and warts. Its characteristics have been proved in a fragmentary way by Burnett, who had to relinquish the proving on account of the "terrible pains it caused in the stomach." He concludes from his experience that the action is very like that of Thuja, and he has successfully used it as a variant of that remedy and of Sabina in the cure of tumors: Cocks-comb growth in the mouth; lipoma of thigh; keloid. ,
Chemical compounds of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana have been reported to demonstrate antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal properties. ,,,,,,,, Earlier publications have shown that Chamaecyparis lawsoniana wood has excellent decay and termite resistance. ,,, Chemically, the plant is reported to have essential oils, viz. Terpinen-4-ol (22.0%), Sabinene (21.0%), camphor (7.8%), Citronellol (7.3%), g-Terpinene (7.0%), Diterpenes viz. Ferruginol, Pisiferol and its epimer 5-epipisiferol, formosanoxide, trans-communic acid, torulosal, sesquiterpene oplopanonyl acetate and the germacrane 4b-hydroxygermacra-1 (10)-5-diene. , However, literature reveals that there are no pharmacognostic standards recorded especially for aerial part of this drug. In view of this fact and importance of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana in Homoeopathy, the present study has been carried out involving, macroscopical and microscopical analyses of stem, leaf and cone of the plant  and the microscopical method is one of the best methods for establishing the correct identification of the source of material.  The results of this study may be useful in the determination of characters for its quick identification and quality assurance of raw drug.
| Materials and methods|| |
The plant materials (aerial part) of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana were collected during the month of July 2013 from Kodaikanal hills (Dindigal district, Tamil Nadu,) and taxonomically identified by the Survey of Medicinal Plants and Collection Unit, Emerald, Nilgiris District, Tamil Nadu, India were preserved in Formalin-acetic acid-alcohol fixative and used for anatomical studies following the method of Wallis.  Epidermal peels were taken by scraping the leaves with a razor blade. Free hand sections were cut and stained in safranin-fast green combination, following the method of Johansen. 
| Observations and results|| |
The macroscopical descriptions based on [Figure 1](a) and (b) is as follows:
|Figure 1: (a) Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, whole plant (b) Twig of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana|
Click here to view
Fan-shaped, flattened, upper surface dark-green, lower surface significantly lighter in color.
Decussate scale such as closely imbricate, ovate, acute, 2-3 mm long, linear to circular, apex acute to acuminate; facial leaves flat and lateral leaves folded.
Purplish to reddish brown, glaucous, globose, 6-12 mm in diameter; scales 5-9, each fertile scale with 2-4 seeds. Seeds 2-5 mm; wing equal to or wider than seed.
The Transverse Section (TS) of leaf showed isobilateral structure with obtuse triangular shape in outline [Figure 2]a. The epidermis is single layered, covered with thick cuticle, and traversed with sunken stomata. The hypodermis is single layered as well as multi-layered at the edges. resin ducts vary from 2 to 4 and are present on abaxial side. The mesophyll is differentiated into single layered palisade cells [Figure 2]b and 3-4 layered spongy tissue with small intracellular space. The meristele is present in the center with single vascular bundle which consists of phloem (ph), xylem (xy) and transfusion tissue (tt) [Figure 2]c. Surface study showed stomatal zone at the lower corner of the abaxial surface of a lateral leaf [Figure 2]d and e.
|Figure 2: (a) Transverse section of leaf scale X4 (b) Transverse section of leaf scale through lamina showing Single layer of palisade X40 (c) Transverse section of leaf scale showing vascular bundle X40 (d) Surface views of leaf with papillate epidermal cells ×10 (e) Surface views of leaf with stomata ×40|
Click here to view
The TS of stem showed 3-4 layered more or less lignified tangentially elongated cork cells with occasional patches of single layer of epidermal cell covered with thick cuticle; cortex 8-10 layers of parenchyma, cells polygonal and often contains starch grains and crystal of Calcium oxalate; followed by 3-4 layers of collapsed cork cambium. Endodermis is not distinct. phloem consists of sieve tubes and parenchyma with alternate layers of isolated phloem fibers and mrs which often interrupt the ph which get widened toward cortex and filled with starch grains. The xylem is broad, and separated by 1-2 seriate and composed of tracheids, early and late wood and pith composed of small parenchymatous cells [Figure 3]a-d.
|Figure 3: (a) Transverse section of stem X4 (b) Transverse section of stem X10 (c) Transverse section of stem showing alternate layer of phloem fibre X40 (d) Transverse section of stem showing prismatic crystal X40|
Click here to view
The seed coat showed the presence of three layers: The outer most layer is epidermal consisting of round to rectangular papillate cells; the middle layer is tough and stony with wavy margin and have 4 alternate resin vesicles (rvs), innermost layer consists of 2-3 layers of collapsed parenchyma tissue towards the terminal side of the wing. Perisperm consists of papery layer surrounding the embryo. Cotyledons (cots) parenchymatous, thin-walled without any aleurone/starch grains [Figure 4]a and b.
|Figure 4: (a) Transverse section of seed ×10 (b) Transverse section of leaf seed a portion enlarged ×40|
Click here to view
Odor balsamic when rubbed between the fingers; taste camphoraceous, turpentine and bitter.
| Discussion and conclusion|| |
The macroscopic and microscopic methods are the simplest methods for establishing the correct identification of plants or plant raw drugs or plant parts.  The macroscopic characters of twigs, leaves and cones of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana serve as diagnostic parameters. Microscopical studies indicated the presence of meristele in the center with single vascular bundle which consists of phloem, xylem and transtution tissue in leaves. Resin ducts vary from 2 to 4 and are found on abaxial side of leaves. Four alternate resin vesicles, epidermis papillate and thin cots parenchymatous are seen in seed. Broad xy composed of tracheids and parenchymatous cells and elongated cork cells with occasional patches of a single layer of epidermal cells covered with thick cuticle of stem are the important diagnostic characteristics of the plant Chamaecyparis lawsoniana.
The pharmacognostic evaluation of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana which comprises of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics is the important features for selection of genuine raw drug or plant parts. Therefore, the pharmacognostic standards laid down for the first time in this study would be useful in identification and standardization of the plant material toward quality assurance of raw drug and for preparation of monograph on the plant, which may also act as reliable pharmacognostical markers in determining authenticity and identifying adulteration of crude drug.  The drug manufacturers can also utilize above described characters for identification and authentication of raw drug material for preparation of homoeopathic drug Chamaecyparis lawsoniana.
| References|| |
Heng Gao, Todd F. Shupe, Chung Y. Hse, Thomas L. Eberhardt Holzforschug, Vol. 60. 459-462,2006.
Gao H. A Thesis: Chemical Analysis of Extracts from Port-Orford-Cedar Wood and Bark, United States, Louisiana State University; 2007.
Anonymous. Wealth of India, Raw Materials. Vol. 1. New Delhi: Publication and Information Directorate (CSIR); 1985. p. 206.
Baburaj DS, Gupta HC. Homoeopathic raw drug plant sources - II: Non-angiosperm groups: Bryophytes, pteridophytes and gymnosperms. Indian J Res Homoeopath 2010;4:15-20.
Verma PN, Vaid I. Encyclopedia of Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia. New Delhi: Jain Publishing Co.; 1997. p. 320.
Clarke JH. A Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica . Vol. 1. 1984 Edition, New Delhi: Jain Publishing Co.; 1982. p. 1:633.
Boericke W. Essentials of rare and uncommon remedies. In: Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica with Repertory. New Delhi: Jain Publishing Co.; 2007. p. 20.
Debiaggi M, Pagani L, Cereda PM, Landini P, Romero E. Antiviral activity of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
extract: Study with herpes simplex virus type 2. Microbiologica 1988;11:55-61.
Yatagai M, Nakatani N. Antimite, antifly, antioxidative and antibacterial activities of pisiferic acid and its congeners. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 1994;40:1355-62.
Dapkevicius A, Venskutonis R, Van-Beek TA, Linssen JP. Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained by different isolation procedures from some aromatic herbs grown in Lithuania. J Sci Food Agric 1998;77:140-46.
Johnson AP, Aucken HM, Cavendish S, Ganner M, Wale MC, Warner M, et al.
Dominance of EMRSA-15 and -16 among MRSA causing nosocomial bacteraemia in the UK: Analysis of isolates from the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). J Antimicrob Chemother 2001;48:143-4.
Xiao D, Kuroyanagi M, Itani T, Matsuura H, Udayama M, Murakami M, et al.
Studies on constituents from Chamaecyparis pisifera
and antibacterial activity of diterpenes. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2001;49:1479-81.
Springfield EP, Amabeoku G, Weitz F, Mabusela W, Johnson Q. An assessment of two Carpobrotus
species extracts as potential antimicrobial agents. Phytomedicine 2003;10:434-9.
Miliauskas G, Venskutonis PR, Van Beek TA. Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts. Food Chem 2004;85:261-37.
Gao H, Shupe TF, Eberhardt TL, Hse CY. Antioxidant activity of extracts from the wood and bark of Port-Orford cedar. J Wood Sci 2007;53:147-52.
Roy K, Kanwar RK, Kanwar JR. Targeting viral hepatitis using natural milk protein and traditional medicinal herbs. J Clin Cell Immunol 2012;3:1-8.
Morrell JJ, Sexton CM. Decay resistance of Port Orford cedar. Forest Prod J 1987;37:49-50.
McDaniel CA. Major termiticidal components of heartwood of Port-Orford cedar, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
(A. Murr.) Parl. Mater Org 1989;24:1-15.
Tucker AO, Maciarello MJ, Karchesy JJ. Commercial''rose of cedar'' oil, the wood oil of Port-Orford cedar, Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
(A. Murray) Parl. (Cupressaceae). J Essent Oil Res 2000;12:24-6.
Craig MA, Karchesy JJ, Blythe LL, Gonzalez-Hernandez MP, Swan LR. Toxicity studies on western juniper oil (Juniperus occidentalis
) and Port-Orford cedar oil (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
) extracts utilizing local lymph node and acute dermal irritation assays. Toxicol Lett 2004;154:217-24.
Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi: Publications and Information Directorate (CSIR); 1979. p. 98.
Eileen CJ, Elizabeth MW, Neale W, Glenn WK, Simon G. Antibacterials and modulators of bacterial resistance from the immature cones of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana
. Phytochemistry 2007;68:210-7.
Gokhale SB, Kokate CK. Practical Pharmacognosy. 12 th
ed. Pune: Nirali Prakashan; 2008. p. 24.
Khandelwal KR. Practical Pharmacognosy. 18 th
ed. Pune: Nirali Publication; 2007. p. 10-4.
Wallis TE. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. 5 th
ed. CBS Publications and distributors, New Delhi, 2005,1958.
Johansen DA. Plant Microtechnique. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.; 1940.
Gupta PC, Sharma N, Rao Ch V. Pharmacognostic studies of the leaves and stem of Careya arborea
Roxb. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:404-8.
Gupta AK, Tandon N, Sharma M. Quality Standards of Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi: Indian Council of Medical Research; 2008. p. 246-55.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]