• Users Online:495
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 12-19

An investigation to evaluate the analgesic and central nervous system depressant activities of Solanum nigrum (Linn.) in Homoeopathic potencies in experimental animal models


1 Pharmacology Division, Central Research Institute (H), Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy, New Delhi, India
3 Department of Zoology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
4 Central Research Institute (H), Kottayam, Kerala, India

Date of Submission29-May-2014
Date of Acceptance27-Nov-2014
Date of Web Publication31-Mar-2015

Correspondence Address:
Echur Natarajan Sundaram
Central Research Institute (H), A?1/1, Sector ? 24, Noida ? 201 301, Uttar Pradesh
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0974-7168.154343

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Background and Objective: In Homoeopathy, Solanum nigrum is clinically used in the treatment of ergotism, meningitis, irritation during dentition and some of the symptoms of neurological disorders but its Central Nervous System (CNS) potential has not been explored experimentally yet. Therefore, a preliminary study was conducted with an objective to evaluate the analgesic and CNS depressant effects of homoeopathic potencies of S. nigrum in experimental animal models.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Wistar albino rats using a hot plate, ice plate and Randall-Selitto assay for analgesic; rota-rod and open field test for CNS depressant activities. The different potencies (3X, 6X, 12X and 30C) of Solanum nigrum were administered orally (0.5 ml/rat/day) for 30 days and response was assessed after 30 minutes of drug administration on 10 th , 20 th and 30 th day.
Results: The result shows that all the four potencies of Solanum nigrum has increased the latency time required to raise and lick the paws for thermal sensation on hot plate test and for cold sensation on ice plate test and also increased the degree of threshold pressure to mechanically induced pain on Randall-Selitto assay but depressed the motor coordination and locomotor activities.
Conclusion: The result obtained from this preliminary study suggests that homoeopathic preparation of Solanum nigrum in different potencies possess analgesic and CNS depressant activities. Further detailed investigations are required for its possible human use.

Keywords: Albino rats, Analgesic, Central nervous system depressant activity, Motor coordination, Neurological disorders, Solanum nigrum


How to cite this article:
Sundaram EN, Singh KP, Reddy PK, Nair KJ, Khurana A, Singh H, Nayak C. An investigation to evaluate the analgesic and central nervous system depressant activities of Solanum nigrum (Linn.) in Homoeopathic potencies in experimental animal models. Indian J Res Homoeopathy 2015;9:12-9

How to cite this URL:
Sundaram EN, Singh KP, Reddy PK, Nair KJ, Khurana A, Singh H, Nayak C. An investigation to evaluate the analgesic and central nervous system depressant activities of Solanum nigrum (Linn.) in Homoeopathic potencies in experimental animal models. Indian J Res Homoeopathy [serial online] 2015 [cited 2019 Nov 18];9:12-9. Available from: http://www.ijrh.org/text.asp?2015/9/1/12/154343


  Introduction Top


Solanum nigrum commonly known as Kakmachi grows naturally throughout India. Solanum nigrum is an erect herb that grows about 30-45 cm in height [1] and demonstrates a diversity of therapeutic properties. It has been extensively used traditionally to treat various ailments such as pain, inflammation and fever. [2] In ethnomedicine, the plant is used as a remedy for cough, asthma, nasal catarrh, ophthalmic disorders, skin disorders, giddiness and nervous disorders. [3] The plant is also used in oriental systems of medicine as a diuretic and an antitumorigenic agent. [4]

Solanum nigrum possesses various compounds that are responsible for diverse activities. Its major active components are glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, and polysaccharides. It also contains polyphenolic compounds such as gallic acid, catechin, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin and naringenin. [5]

The fruit of Solanum nigrum has been found to possess antiulcer and antitumor effects in rats. [6] The extracts of plant exhibit antinociceptive, anti inflammatory [7] and antipyretic activity in rats [8] whereas its aqueous extract show anticonvulsant property in chicks, mice and rats. [9] Ethanol extract of Solanum nigrum has been reported to possess hepatoprotective activity against CCI 4 -induced hepatic damage in rats. [10] The ethanol extract of the fruit is also shown to possess potential Central Nervous System (CNS) depressant action. [11] Crude extract of Solanum nigrum leaves has been found to possess antioxidant effect in rats. [12]

In Homoeopathy, Solanum nigrum in different potencies used for treating ergotism, tetanic spasms and stiffness of whole body with mania, meningitis, irritation during dentition, chronic intestinal toxemia and other neurological disorders [13] . But the scientific evidence for its use in the treatment of neurological disorders as used in ethnomedicine was lacking. The present study was, therefore, carried out to assess the analgesic and CNS depressant activities of the homoeopathic potencies (3X, 6X, 12X and 30C) of Solanum nigrum in experimental animal models. The positive results in animal models, if obtained, can be made more meaningful by conducting human trials to prove its therapeutic effects on human brain.


  Materials and methods Top


Collection of Plant Material

The whole plant of Solanum nigrum Linn. (Family: Solanaceae) was collected from Nilgiris hills, Tamil Nadu, India during the month of July and taxonomically identified/authenticated by the Botanist at Survey of Medicinal Plants Collection Unit, Udagamandalam, Tamilnadu.

Preparation and Selection of Medicines

Homoeopathic potencies of Solanum nigrum in 3X, 6X and 12X dilutions in Decimal Scale and 30C dilution in Centesimal Scale were prepared according to the standard procedures mentioned in Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India and supplied by M/S. Bahola Laboratories, Puducherry, India from a single batch of whole plant. [14] The 3X, 6X, 12X and 3C dilutions of Solanum nigrum were selected in this study because these potencies are commonly prescribed by Homoeopathic practitioners for their clinical uses. [13]

Animals

Adult Wistar albino rats (120-140 g) procured from National Centre for Laboratory Animal Sciences, Hyderabad were used in the study. They were housed in polypropylene cages (47 cm × 34 cm × 20 cm) under standard laboratory conditions (12/12 hour, light/dark cycles and room temperature 25΀C ± 2΀C) and allowed free access to food and water ad-libitum. The animals were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for a period of 10 days before initiation of the study.

Experimental Design

The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (Reg. No. 383/01/a/CPCSEA), Department of Zoology, Osmania University, Hyderabad, where the study was conducted. A total of 180 rats were taken and divided into five batches (one batch for each study) of 36 each which were further divided into six groups of six each. The animals were accustomed to respective test procedures initially by subjecting them for test trials for three subsequent observations at 10-minute intervals on each day for 3 days before giving them any drug treatment. The test potencies (3X, 6X, 12X and 30C) of Solanum nigrum and vehicle (91.5% alcohol used as vehicle for preparation of different potencies of test drug) were diluted with distilled water in the ratio of 1:4 and kept as stock solutions. The animals were fed with 2 ml stock solution of different potencies (3X, 6X, 12X and 30C) of Solanum nigrum that is, 0.5 ml (drug)/rat/day for 30 days. Vehicle and saline-treated rats were also maintained simultaneously along with drug-treated animals. The response of the drug was measured after 30 minutes of drug administration on 10 th , 20 th and 30 th day. Reading taken just before administration of the drug/vehicle/saline on first day of the study was considered as the initial control value in the same group for comparison.

Analgesic activity

Analgesic activity was studied by (i) hot plate (ii) ice plate and (iii) Randall-Selitto methods

Hot plate method

The hot plate latency assay was performed as per the method of Eddy et. al. [15] 30 minutes after the administration of drug, vehicle or saline, the rats were gently placed individually on a hot plate maintained at a constant temperature of 55΀C ± 2΀C and recorded the latency time (s). The time taken by the animals to lick the fore or hind paw or jump out of the hot plate was considered as latency (reaction) time. The reaction time noted just before administration of the drug, vehicle or saline on day 1 first day of the study was considered as the initial control values for comparison. A cut-off reaction time of 15 seconds was chosen in order to avoid physical injury to the animal. [16]

Ice plate method

Ice plate test was carried out as described by Sundaram et al.[17] After 30 minutes of drug, vehicle or saline administration, all rat, one at a time was gently placed on the ice cubes (0-4΀C) filled in a transparent container (20 cm × 20 cm × 20 cm) and covered with a plastic cover. The rat was visualized through the transparent wall and latency time (s) taken to lick the fore or hind paws to cold sensation was noted. The latency time of animal to cold sensation taken just before administration of drug, vehicle or saline on day first day of the study was considered as the initial control values for comparison. A cut-off reaction time was set at 15 seconds in order to avoid tissue damage to the animals due to frozen temperature.

Randall-Selitto method

The analgesic activity of the drug against mechanically induced pain was measured by Randall-Selitto assay. [18] After 30 minutes of drug, alcohol or saline administration, the rats were gently held in the hand. Afterward, the paw of the right foot of the rat was placed on the rubber base of the apparatus and pressure (in pounds; expressed in grams) was applied either on 2 nd -3 rd or 3 rd -4 th metatarsal region through a pointed tip and increased gradually until vocalization elicited which was considered as threshold pressure to mechanical induced pain. Threshold pressure to mechanical induced pain taken on first day just before the administration of drug, alcohol or saline was considered as the initial control values for comparison.

Central Nervous System depressant activity

Central Nervous System depressant activity was performed using (i) Rota-rod and (ii) open field methods

Rota-rod Test method

Motor coordination and grip strengths were measured using the automated rota-rod apparatus. [19] The rats capable of remaining on the rota-rod for 60 second or more, in three successive trials were selected for the study. After 30 minutes of drug, vehicle or saline administration, the rats were gently placed on the rotor with the body axis perpendicular to the rotor's long axis with the head directed opposite to the direction of rotating rod (5 rpm) and the fall-off time from the rod was noted for each rat. The control grip strengths of the rats were measured on first day just before administration of the drug, vehicle or saline for comparison.

Open field test method

For recording the locomotor activity of the rats, the Open Field Test was used. [20] The apparatus (96 cm × 96 cm × 6 cm) was made up of the wooden box and divided in to 36 equal squares which were painted alternatively with black and white colors. At the time of the experiment, it was illuminated with low-intensity diffuse light (40 W) placed at a height of 100 cm. The rats were placed gently in the center of the apparatus one after another and the number of squares crossed in 5 minutes was recorded before and 30 minutes after drug, vehicle or saline administration. The floor of the box was cleaned after every trial.

Statistical Analysis

The data were expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. The difference between mean values of groups were statistically analyzed by student's' t- test. P <0.05 were considered significant. [21]


  Results Top


Analgesic Activity

Hot plate test


[Table 1] represents the data for the analgesic effect of different potencies (3X, 6X, 12X and 30C) of Solanum nigrum. The latency time required to raise and lick the hind paw for thermal stimulus was more or less same (3.38-3.67 seconds) in untreated (on first day before administration of drug/vehicle) and saline-treated animals when measured on different days of the experiment. On the other hand, the animals treated with different potencies of Solanum nigrum and vehicle at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat/day showed increase in the latency time (5.22-5.88 seconds) to thermal stimulus when measured after 30 minutes of drug/vehicle administration on 10 th day. The difference in the increase in latency time to hot sensation was significant (P < 0.05) with those groups which were treated with 3X and 6X potencies of Solanum nigrum. Thereafter, the increase in the duration of latency time tapered off gradually on 20 th day and 30 th day of treatment [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Analgesic effect of Solanum nigrum on hot plate test

Click here to view
Table 1: Analgesic effect of S. nigrum (0.5 ml/rat/day) on a hot plate test


Click here to view


Ice plate test

[Table 2] represents the data for the analgesic effect of different potencies (3X, 6X, 12X and 30C) of Solanum nigrum. The latency time required to raise and lick the hind paw for cold sensation was more or less same (5.80-6.09 seconds) in untreated and saline-treated animals when measured on different days of the experiment whereas Solanum nigrum in different potencies and vehicle at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat/day had significantly increased the latency time (7.31-8.09 seconds) on 10 th day which was gradually tapered off on 20 th day and 30 th day of treatment. The difference was significant (P < 0.05) only with those rats treated with 3X and 6X when compared to initial latency time taken just before administration of drug on first day of the study [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Analgesic effect of Solanum nigrum on ice plate test

Click here to view
Table 2: Analgesic effect of S. nigrum (0.5 ml/rat/day) on ice plate test


Click here to view


Randall-Selitto assay

The results of the analgesic effect of different potencies of Solanum nigrum are presented in [Table 3]. The quantum of threshold pressure required to elicit vocalization to applied mechanical pain was more or less same (131.33-133.66 g) on first day before administration of drug, vehicle or saline and 30 minutes after the administration of saline on different days of experimentation. There was an increase in the quantum of applied threshold pressure (145.00-148.66 g) required to elicit vocalization to mechanical pain when measured 30 minutes after the administration of different potencies (3X, 6X, 12X and 30C) of Solanum nigrum and vehicle at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat/day on 10 th day. The difference was significant (P < 0.05) only with those rats treated with 3X and 30C potencies when compared to that of normal saline-treated rats. Afterward, the increase in the quantum of threshold pressure required to elicit vocalization to applied mechanical pain tapered off gradually on 20 th day and 30 th day of experiments [Figure 3].
Figure 3: Analgesic effect of Solanum nigrum on Randall-Selitto test

Click here to view
Table 3: Analgesic effect of S. nigrum (0.5 ml/rat/day) on Randall-Selitto test


Click here to view


Central Nervous System depressant activity

Rota-rod test


The results of different potencies (3X, 6X, 12X and 30C) of Solanum nigrum on motor coordination activity of rats are summarized in [Table 4]. Untreated rats and rats administered with saline stayed on the rotating rod on an average of 49.07-51.55 seconds whereas, rats treated with different potencies of Solanum nigrum and vehicle at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat/day fell between 32.81 and 38.05 seconds when they were subjected to test on 10 th day of experiment after 30 minutes of drug administration. The decrease in grip strength was significant (P < 0.05) only in those rats treated with 3X and 6X potencies of Solanum nigrum. Afterward, there was a progressive increase in the grip strength of drug/vehicle treated rats as they stayed comparatively for more time on the rotating rod when tested on 20 th and 30 th day of experiment though stay on rotating rod was still less than that of control initial values observed in the same group on first day just before administration of drug or with that of saline administered rats [Figure 4].
Figure 4: Behavioral effect of Solanum nigrum on rota-rod test

Click here to view
Table 4: Behavioral effect of S. nigrum (0.5 ml/rat/day) on rota-rod test


Click here to view


Open field test

The results of different potencies (3X, 6X, 12X and 30C) of Solanum nigrum and vehicle on locomotor activity of rats are presented in [Table 5]. Control untreated rats and rats administered normal saline crossed on an average of (63.00-65.66) squares in 5 minutes. On the other hand, there was a decrease (46.00-47.33 squares in 5 minutes) in locomotor activity of rats administered Solanum nigrum and vehicle at a dose of 0.5 ml/rat/day when tested after 30 minutes of drug administration on 10 th day of experiment. The decrease in locomotor activity was significant (P < 0.05) only with those rats treated with 6X and 12X potencies of Solanum nigrum when compared to initial latency time taken just before administration of drug on first day of the study [Figure 5].
Figure 5: Behavioral effect of Solanum nigrum in open field test

Click here to view
Table 5: Behavioral effect of Solanum nigrum (0.5 ml/rat/day) in open field test


Click here to view



  Discussion and conclusion Top


Solanum nigrum is used as homoeopathic drug to treat various ailments including many symptoms of neurological disorders clinically, but has not garnered the attention to verify its use experimentally. [15] Therefore, the present preliminary study was carried out for the first time with an objective to assess the analgesic activity using hot plate, ice plate and Randall-Selitto assays and CNS depressant activities using Rota-rod Test (for motor coordination) and Open Field Test (for locomotor activity) of homoeopathic potencies of Solanum nigrum (3X, 6X, 12X and 30C) in albino rats.

The data for the analgesic effect showed that all the four (3X, 6X, 12X and 30C) potencies of Solanum nigrum has increased the latency time required to raise and lick the hind paw for thermal sensation on hot plate assay and for cold sensation on ice plate assay and also increased the quantum of threshold pressure to mechanical induced pain on Randall-Selitto assay when measured 30 minutes after the administration of different potencies (3X, 6X, 12X and 30C) of Solanum nigrum on 10 th day. These effects were gradually tapered off on 20 th day and 30 th day of treatment.

The data obtained for CNS depressant effect showed that different potencies (3X, 6X,12X and 30C) of Solanum nigrum has significantly decreased motor co-ordination on Rota-rod Test and locomotor activity in Open Field Test. The depressant effect was the maximum on 10 th days and slowly decreased thereafter very similar to that of analgesic response. The level of significance varied not only between the potencies of the drug but also between different sets of experiments as compared to the values of saline group or initial values taken just before administration of drug on first day of the study.

Increased in the latency time to noxious thermal stimulus and/or cold sensation, and increased in the quantum of threshold pressure to mechanically induced pain on drug treatment are the clear indication that the drug possess analgesic effect. [22] Similarly, decreased motor coordination and locomotor activity of the drug is the sign of CNS depression. [23] Wearing off the analgesic and depression on prolonged and continuous use of the drug may be either due to decreased sensitivity of the CNS or due to increased metabolizing enzymatic activity in the liver.

The present preliminary study demonstrates that the Homoeopathic potencies (3X, 6X, 12X and 30C) of Solanum nigrum possess analgesic and CNS depressant effect. However, further detailed investigations are needed for its possible clinical use.


  Acknowledgment Top


The authors are thankful to Head, Department of Zoology, Osmania University, Hyderabad for extending laboratory facilities for conducting the study. The authors acknowledge the financial support from Ministry of AYUSH under collaborative study and Director General, CCRH for providing the support.

 
  References Top

1.
Kirtikar KP, Basu BD. Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol. 3. Allahabad: L. M. Basu Publication; 1980. p. 1748-51.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Acharya E, Pokhrel B. Ethno-medicinal plants used by Bantar of Bhaudaha, Morang, Nepal. Our Nat 2006; 4:96-103.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Sharma PC, Yelne MB, Dennis JJ. Data Base on Medicinal Plants Used in Ayurveda. New Delhi: CCRAS; 2005. p. 347-67.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Jain R, Sharma A, Gupta S, Sarethy IP, Gabrani R. Solanum nigrum: current perspectives on therapeutic properties. Altern Med Rev 2011; 16:78-85.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Sikdar M, Dutta U. Traditional phytotherapy among the Nath People of Assam. Ethnomed 2008;2:39-45.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Jainu M, Devi CS. Antiulcerogenic and ulcer healing effects of Solanum nigrum (L.) on experimental ulcer models: possible mechanism for the inhibition of acid formation. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 104:156-63.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Ravi V, Saleem TS, Patel SS, Ramamurthy J, Gauthaman K. Anti-inflammatory effect of Methanolic extract of Solanum nigrum Linn. Berries. Int J Appl Res Nat Prod 2009;2:33-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Zakaria ZA, Gopalan HK, Zainal H, Mohd Pojan NH, Morsid NA, Aris A, et al. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Solanum nigrum chloroform extract in animal models. Yakugaku Zasshi 2006;126:1171-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Wannang NN, Anuka JA, Kwanashie HO, Gyang SS, Auta A. Anti-seizure activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Solanum nigrum Linn (Solanaceae) in experimental animals. Afr Health Sci 2008;8:74-9.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Raju K, Anbuganapathi G, Gokulakrishnan V, Rajkapoor B, Jayakar B, Manian S. Effect of dried fruits of Solanum nigrum Linn against CCl4-induced hepatic damage in rats. Biol Pharm Bull 2003; 26:1618-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Perez RM, Perez JA, Garcia LM, Sossa H. Neuropharmacological activity of Solanum nigrum fruit. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;62:43-8.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Lee SJ, Lim KT. Antioxidative effects of glycoprotein isolated from Solanum nigrum Linn on oxygen radicals and its cytotoxic effects on the MCF-7 cell. J Food Sci 2003;68:466-70.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Boericke W. Pocket Manual of Homoeopathic Materia Medica and Repertory. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers; 1996. p. 597-8.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Anonymous. Solanum nigrum. Homoeopathic Pharmacopoeia of India. Vol. 1. Delhi: The Controller of Publication; 1971. p. 152.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Eddy NB, Touchberry CF, Lieberman JE. Synthetic analgesics; methadone isomers and derivatives. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1950;98:121-37.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Franzotti EM, Santos CV, Rodrigues HM, Mourão RH, Andrade MR, Antoniolli AR. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic activity and acute toxicity of Sida cordifolia L. (Malva-branca). J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72:273-7.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Sundaram EN, Singh KP, Reddy KP, Kumar S, Nair KR, Khurana A, et al. A preliminary study to evaluate analgesic and behavioural effects Lycopodium clavatum in experimental animals. Indian J Res Homoeopath 2013; 7:168-74.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Randall LO, Selitto JJ. A method for measurement of analgesic activity on inflamed tissue. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 1957;111:409-19.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Vogel HG, Vogel WH. Psychotropic and neurotropic activity. In: Vogel HG, Vogel WH, editors. Drug Discovery and Evaluation: Pharmacological Assays. Berlin, Springer-Verlag; 1997. p. 204-16.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Turner RA. Depressants of the Central Nervous System. Screening Procedures in Pharmacology. I st ed. New York: Academic Press; 1972. p. 78-88.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Gupta BN. Statistics-Theory and Practice. 4 th ed. India: Agra Sahitya Bhawan Publication; 1989. p. 186-94.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Wani TA, Kumar D, Prasad R, Verma PK, Sardar KK, Tandan SK, et al. Analgesic activity of the ethanolic extract of Shorea robusta resin in experimental animals. Indian J Pharmacol 2012;44:493-9.  Back to cited text no. 22
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
23.
Balaji P, Thirumal M, Kumudhaveni B, Kishore G, Aliya A. Central nervous system depressant activity of Barringtonia acutangula (Linn.) Gaertn. Pharm Lett 2012; 4:1786-92.  Back to cited text no. 23
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
   Abstract
  Introduction
   Materials and me...
  Results
   Discussion and c...
  Acknowledgment
   References
   Article Figures
   Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed3822    
    Printed62    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded552    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]